Mandibular tori represent benign overgrowths of mature, lamellar bone, occurring on the lingual mandibular cortex. Typically attached to the mandible opposite the premolar region and superior to the mylohyoid line, they are most commonly bilateral. There is some variation in incidence among races with a higher incidence among Orientals than in Caucasians. Apparently, genetic factors also influence tori development, as the offspring of parents with mandibular tori have a much higher incidence of development.
Radiographically, tori appear as well-defined areas of radiopacity overlying the tooth roots (Figure 59), particularly extending from the canine to the molar regions. If tori are seen on radiographs, they should be clinically confirmed in order to rule out other conditions, which lead to osseous radiopacity.