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Hand Hygiene: Infection Control/Exposure Control Issues for Oral Healthcare Workers

Géza T. Terézhalmy, DDS, MA; Michaell A. Huber, DDS

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  2. Thompson ND, Perz JF, Moorman AC, Holmberg SD. Nonhospital health care-associated hepatitis B and C virus transmission: United States, 1998-2008. Ann Intern Med. 2009 Jan 6;150(1):33-39.
  3. Kohn WG, Collins AS, Cleveland JL, et al. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Guidelines for infection control in dental health-care settings--2003. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2003 Dec 19;52(RR-17):1-61.
  4. Myers R, Larson E, Cheng B, et al. Hand hygiene among general practice dentists: A survey of knowledge, attitudes and practices. J Am Dent Assoc. 2008 Jul;139(7):948-957.
  5. Kotilainen HR, Brinker JP, Avato JL, Gantz NM. Latex and vinyl examination gloves: quality control procedures and implications for health care workers. Arch Intern Med. 1989 Dec;149(12):2749-2753.
  6. Reingold AL, Kane MA, Hightower AW. Failure of gloves and other protective devices to prevent transmission of hepatitis B virus to oral surgeons. JAMA. 1988 May 6;259(17):2558-2560.
  7. Larson EL, Early E, Cloonan P, Sugrue S, Parides M. An organizational climate intervention associated with increased handwashing and decreased nosocomial infections. Behav Med. 2000 Spring;26(1):14-22.
  8. Pittet D, Hugonnet S, Harbarth S, et al. Effectiveness of a hospital-wide programme to improve compliance with hand hygiene. Infection Control Programme. Lancet. 2000 Oct 14;356(9238):1307-1312.
  9. Elias PM, Choi EH. Interactions among stratum corneum defensive functions. Exp Dermatol. 2005 Oct;14(10):719-726.
  10. Corcuff P, Fiat F, Minondo AM: Ultrastructure of the human stratum corneum. Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol. 2001;14 Suppl 1:4-9.
  11. Fuchs E. Beauty is skin deep: the fascinating biology of the epidermis and its appendages. Harvey Lect. 1998-1999;94:47-77.
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  13. Fredricks DN. Microbial ecology of human skin in health and disease. J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc. 2001 Dec;6(3):167-169.
  14. Larson E. Effects of handwashing agent, handwashing frequency, and clinical area on hand flora. Am J Infect Control. 1984 Apr;12(2):76-82.
  15. Larson EL, Hughes CA, Pyrek JD, et al. Changes in bacterial flora associated with skin damage on hands of health care personnel. Am J Infect Control. 1998 Oct;26(5):513-521.
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  17. Fierer N, Hamady M, Lauber CL, Knight R. The influence of sex, handedness, and washing on the diversity of hand surface bacteria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Nov 18;105(46):17994-17999.
  18. Patrick DR, Findon G, Miller TE. Residual moisture determines the level of touch-contact-associated bacterial transfer following hand washing. Epidemiol Infect. 1997 Dec;119(3):319-325.
  19. U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration. 29 CFR Part 1910.1030. Occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens; needlesticks and other sharps injuries; final rule. Federal Register 2001;66:5317-5325. As amended from and includes 29 CRF Part 1910.1030. Occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens; final rule Federal Register 1991;56:64174-64182. Accessed July 20, 2013.
  20. Siegel JD, Rhinehart E, Jackson M, Chiarello L, and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. 2007 guidelines for isolation precautions: preventing transmission of infectious agents in healthcare settings. Accessed July 20, 2013.
  21. Olsen RJ, Lynch P, Coyle MB, et al. Examination gloves as barriers to hand contamination in clinical practice. JAMA. 1993 Jul 21;270(3):350-353.
  22. Tenorio AR, Badri SM, Sahgal NB, et al. Effectiveness of gloves in the prevention of hand carriage of vancomycin-resistant enterococcus species by health care workers after patient care. Clin Infect Dis. 2001 Mar 1;32(5):826-829.
  23. Doebbeling BN, Pfaller MA, Houston AK, Wenzel RP. Removal of nosocomial pathogens from the contaminated glove. Implications for glove reuse and handwashing. Ann Intern Med. 1988 Sep 1;109(5):394-398.
  24. Miller CS, Danaher RJ. Asymptomatic shedding of herpes simplex virus (HSV) in the oral cavity. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2008 Jan;105(1):43-50.
  25. World Health Organization. WHO guidelines on hand hygiene in health care (advanced draft): a summary.  Accessed July 20, 2013.
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  27. Department of Health and Human Services. Food and Drug Administration. Topical antimicrobial drug products for over-the-counter human use; tentative final monograph for health-care antiseptic drug products. Federal Register 1994;59:31402-31452. Accessed July 20, 2013.
  28. Larson EL, Morton HE. Alcohols. In: Block SS, ed. Disinfection, sterilization and preservation. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lea and Febiger, 1991:642-54.
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  30. Rilliet A, Hunziker N, Brun R. Alcohol contact urticaria syndrome (immediate-type hypersensitivity). Case report. Dermatologica. 1980;161(6):361-364.
  31. Hsueh PR, Teng LJ, Yang PC, et al. Nosocomial pseudoepidemic caused by Bacillus cereus traced to contaminated ethyl alcohol from a liquor factory. J Clin Microbiol. 1999 Jul;37(7):2280-2284.
  32. Widmer AF. Replace hand washing with use of a waterless alcohol hand rub? Clin Infect Dis. 2000 Jul;31(1):136-143.
  33. Anderson RL. Iodophor antiseptics: intrinsic microbial contamination with resistant bacteria. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1989 Oct;10(10):443-446.
  34. Larson EL. APIC guideline for handwashing and hand antisepsis in health care settings. Am J Infect Control. 1995 Aug;23(4):251-269.
  35. Larson E, Leyden JJ, McGinley KJ, et al. Physiologic and microbiologic changes in skin related to frequent handwashing. Infect Control. 1986 Feb;7(2):59-63.
  36. Wilhelm KP. Prevention of surfactant-induced irritant contact dermatitis. Curr Probl Dermatol. 1996;25:78-85.
  37. Rotter ML, Simpson RA, Koller W. Surgical hand disinfection with alcohols at various concentrations: parallel experiments using the new proposed European standards method. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1998 Oct;19(10):778-781.
  38. Rastogi SC, Heydorn S, Johansen JD, Basketter DA. Fragrance chemicals in domestic and occupational products. Contact Dermatitis. 2001 Oct;45(4):221-225.
  39. Schnuch A, Uter W, Geier J, Frosch PJ, Rustemeyer T. Contact allergies in healthcare workers. Results from the IVDK. Acta Derm Venereol. 1998 Sep;78(5):358-363.
  40. Huber MA, Holton RH, Terezhalmy GT. Cost analysis of hand hygiene using antimicrobial soap and water versus an alcohol-based hand rub. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2006 May 1;7(2):37-45.
  41. Institute for Healthcare Improvement. How-to guide: improving hand hygiene. A guide for improving practices among health care workers. 2006. Accessed July 20, 2013.
  42. Armellino D, Hussain E, Schilling ME, Senicola W, et al. Using high-technology to enforce low-technology safety measures: the use of third-party remote video auditing and real-time feedback in healthcare. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Jan 1;54(1):1-7.

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