Test Preview

  1. Four primary factors are required in order for caries to occur. These are:
  1. The initial stage of biofilm development is formation of a(n) _______________ layer.
  1. Who was the first researcher to link fluoride to caries reduction?
  1. Saliva helps reduce caries through _______________ and _______________.
  1. One technique for measuring how long the saliva remains below the critical pH for caries after eating is called the _______________.
  1. In the Dispersion stage of biofilm development, some bacteria detach from the biofilm in order to _______________.
  1. The concept of the oral environment being able to cause a shift in dental plaque ecology that can either lead to good health or disease is called the _______________.
  1. Classical microbiological methods estimate that plaque contains ~ 800 distinct oral species, with healthy individuals possessing _______________ different species at any one time.
  1. Although there are many plaque bacteria, which bacteria are most associated with caries?
  1. S. mutans adheres to the tooth biofilm by converting sucrose into an extremely adhesive substance known as _______________.
  1. Which of the following is the more accurate description of caries?
  1. What impact does the production of acids by sugar fermentation have on plaque pH?
  1. During the Hydrolysis of Sugar process, extracellular invertase cleaves the energy rich α (1-2) glycosidic bond between which moieties in order to initiate the acid-forming process?
  1. Extracellular polysaccharides make up what percentage of plaque volume?
  1. When a cell becomes a component of a biofilm, it experiences a shift in gene expression, making it up to how many times more resistant to antibodies, antibiotics, and antimicrobials than its planktonic counterparts?