Which of the following is not a major tissue of teeth?
B. Parathyroid gland
Which of the following is true about enamel?
A. It has a blood and nerve supply.
B. It contain no pores.
C. Its hydroxyapatite crystals are highly organized.
D. Water makes up 12% of its composition.
When a tooth erupts, it is not fully mineralized. Which ions are taken up from saliva to complete mineralization?
A. Calcium and Magnesium
B. Phosphorous and Carbonate
C. Fluoride, Calcium and Phosphorous
D. Magnesium and Cesium
What are the main differences between dentin and enamel?
A. Dentin has more organic matter, dentin is softer, and dentin is living tissue that can grow and repair.
B. Dentin has more organic matter, dentin’s hydroxyapatite crystals are smaller, and enamel can be repaired and regenerated.
C. There are no significant differences.
D. Enamel contains tubules that connect it to pulp, dentin is harder, and enamel has more inorganic matter.
Which of the following is true about pulp?
A. It is formed by epithelial cells called ameloblasts.
B. One of its main roles is the creation of dentin.
C. It is devoid of blood vessels and nerves.
D. It is directly connected to enamel via tubules.
What is the main role of cementum?
A. To protect against tooth sensitivity.
B. To create dentin.
C. To anchor teeth to the body walls of tooth sockets.
D. To serve as a sacrificial source of minerals during a cariogenic challenge.
Which of the following are major salivary glands?
C. Wharton’s ducts
D. A and B
Which of the following traits differentiates the sublingual salivary glands from the parotid and submandibular glands?
A. The sublingual glands secrete mostly mucous and have excretory ducts.
B. The sublingual glands secrete mostly serous fluid and have excretory ducts.
C. The sublingual glands produce thicker saliva and have intercalated ducts.
D. There is no difference between sublingual glands and parotid and submandibular glands.
Salivary glands are innervated by the parasympathetic and the sympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system. Which of the following pairings is correct for nerve control and secretion?
A. Parasympathetic stimulation favors mucoid secretion.
B. Parasympathetic stimulation favors serous secretion.
C. Direct sympathetic stimulation favors serous secretion.
D. Indirect sympathetic stimulation favors serous secretion.
Which of the following represents the physical role of saliva?
A. Cleanses the oral cavity.
B. Dilutes and removes organic acids from dental plaque.
C. Aids in digestion.
D. A and B
In humans, major and minor salivary glands secrete approximately what volume of saliva each day?
A. 5 liters
B. 2 liters
C. 1 liters
D. 0.01 liters
Which of the following act as pH neutralizing agents in saliva?
A. Sodium bicarbonate, phosphates, and sialin
B. Statherins, phosphates, and calcium
C. Sodium bicarbonate, hydroxyapatite, sialin
D. Hydroxyapatite and fluoride
Which of the following is an antibacterial property of saliva?
A. Mucins that trap, aggregate, and clear bacteria.
B. Lysozyme that deprives bacteria of iron.
C. Lactoferrin that activates bacterial clumping.
D. Salivary peroxide that triggers hydrogen peroxides.
The increase of which of the following results from an exposure to cariogenic bacteria?
A. Plasma cells
Which of the following correctly describes secretory immunoglobin A (sIgA)?
A. sIgA is produced in salivary ducts and primarily inhibits adherence of bacteria.
B. sIgA is produced in gingival fluid and triggers phagocytosis.
C. sIgA is produced only in gingival fluid and inhibits adherence of bacteria.
D. sIgA is made of three molecules of light and heavy chains.