Which of the following statements about dental erosion is true?
A. Dental erosion is not a serious public health issue.
B. Dental erosion is caused by bacteria.
C. Dental erosion is non-bacterial chronic loss of dental tissues.
D. Dental erosion is only prevalent in less developed countries.
Why is dental erosion of particular concern to dentists?
A. When reparative processes can no longer protect teeth, complications can include pain, dentin hypersensitivity, and pulpal inflammation.
B. It can lead to oral cancer.
C. Dental erosion is not a serious concern for dentists.
D. It can be an indicator of future caries.
Which of the following is correct about attrition?
A. Attrition is only caused by pathological behavior, like tooth grinding.
B. Attrition can be physiological when it is due to normal wear or pathological when caused by certain habits of the patient, like tooth grinding.
C. Attrition only damages the premolars and molars.
D. Attrition is the wearing away of dental tissue by foreign objects in the mouth.
Which of the following is correct about abrasion?
A. Abrasion is the wearing away of dental tissue due to tooth-to-tooth contact.
B. Abrasion is only caused by pathological behavior.
C. Abrasion causes include oral habits like using toothpaste and brushing teeth in a way that may be too hard.
D. Abrasion only damages the premolars and molars.
Which of the following is correct about abfraction?
A. Abfraction is a mechanical process caused only by foreign objects in the mouth.
B. Abrasion only damages the premolars and molars.
C. Abfraction is caused by “bad bite.”
D. Abfraction occurs as a result of shear stress that leads to tooth flexure that causes fractures in enamel and dentin.
What is the first step of tissue loss during the dental erosion process?
A. Enamel exposed to acid first undergoes softening, and as softening progresses over time, dissolution can remove portions of enamel or the whole enamel layer.
B. There is dissolution at the junction of the peritubular and intertubular dentin.
C. There is formation of a demineralized collagenous mix.
D. There is the widening of tubule lumina.
Which factors below are major causes of dental erosion?
B. Consumption of carbonated beverages
C. Consumption of acidic foods and beverages
D. All of the above.
Which of the following is not an extrinsic source of erosive acid?
A. Chewable vitamin C
B. Gastric acid
C. Mouth rinses that contain sodium chloride
D. Herbal teas
What percent of calcium in saliva can be complexed by citrate in fruit juices?
Which of the following is true about the calcium, phosphate, and fluoride concentration of a beverage?
A. Solutions oversaturated in calcium, phosphate, and fluoride with respect to dental tissue will protect against dental surface softening.
B. A low degree of undersaturation does not impact enamel at all.
C. A high degree of undersaturation will only cause an initial surface demineralization.
D. Supplementing a solution with calcium, phosphate, and fluoride does not affect its erosive potential.
What helps the salivary pellicle have a protective effect?
A. It is a source of remineralizing electrolytes.
B. It cannot be removed once fully formed.
C. It contains acid-neutralizing enzymes, like carbonic anhydrase VI.
D. A and C
On which teeth surfaces are the most serious dental erosions typically found?
A. Facial surfaces of the upper incisors
B. Lingual surfaces of the lower teeth
C. Palatal surfaces of the upper teeth
D. All tooth surfaces.
What information is useful in assessing a patient’s risk of dental erosion?
A. The patient’s oral hygiene habits
B. The patient’s use of medications and supplements
C. A record of the patient’s dietary intake
D. All of the above.
What qualities describe the appearance of enamel in early erosion?
A. Smooth, silky, glazed
B. Bumpy, dull, yellow
C. There are no detectable changes in early erosion
D. Thick, bumpy
Which source of fluoride has been identified as particularly beneficial for its ability to help protect against dental erosion?
A. Sodium fluoride
B. Sodium monofluorophosphate
C. Stannous fluoride
D. All fluorides protect equally.