Which of the following is a key finding that led to the understanding of the benefit of fluoride in public dental health?
A. Children who lived in towns with abnormally high levels of fluoride in the water supply had perfectly healthy teeth.
B. A new pipeline with an alternative water source pumped into the town of Oakley, Idaho, led to the disappearance of “brown stain” on teeth.
C. Analysis of the water supply of Bauxite, Arkansas, uncovered an unusually high level of fluoride and this was confirmed in other towns with fluorosis.
D. B and C
The majority of fluoride ingested in water or food is absorbed in which body organ(s)?
A. Lymphatic system
C. Stomach and small intestine
Fluoride incorporates into the enamel structure as ____________.
B. apatite crystal
Which of the following is false about the concentration of fluoride in teeth?
A. Fluoride concentration is highest on surface enamel.
B. Fluoride concentration is high in dentin.
C. Fluoride accumulates over a lifetime at the dentin-pulp interface.
D. Fluoride only adsorbs onto the surface of the teeth; it does not penetrate into the teeth themselves.
What is the main mechanism by which fluoride protects the tooth from caries?
A. Fluoride helps to reduce demineralization and enhance remineralization.
B. Fluoride increases saliva production.
C. Fluoride helps keep tooth enamel white.
D. Fluoride is able to kill
P. gingivalis bacteria, a major contributor to caries.
Which of the following is true regarding the mode of action for the antimicrobial effects of fluoride?
A. Inhibits growth and metabolism of
B. At higher concentrations, it can inhibit acid production by plaque bacteria.
C. Fluoride has no significant antimicrobial effects.
D. A and B
Chalky white lines or stains are believed to be caused by which of the following?
A. An abnormally high level of
Streptococcus mutans in plaque.
B. An abnormally high concentration of fluoride that leads to hypomineralization of tooth enamel.
C. Excessive consumption of vitamin C.
D. Excessive consumption of calcium.
What is the average percentage in caries reduction among children where community drinking water contains 1 ppm fluoride?
Which of the following research findings validates that consistent fluoride protection is needed to maintain a reduction in caries rate?
A. Children who move from non-fluoridated areas to other non-fluoridated areas experienced a caries decrease.
B. Children who move from fluoridated areas to non-fluoridated areas experienced a caries increase.
C. Children who move from non-fluoridated areas to fluoridated areas experienced a caries increase.
D. Children who move from fluoridated areas to non-fluoridated areas experienced a caries decrease.
Fluoride supplements are recommended for which population of people?
B. Adults only, regardless of caries risk.
C. Children at high risk of caries residing in non-fluoridated areas.
D. Children only, regardless of caries risk.
How much fluoride does most over-the-counter dentifrice contain in the United States?
A. 100 ppm to 200 ppm
B. 850 ppm to 1150 ppm
C. 3000 ppm
D. 1 ppm
Which forms of fluoride are the most commonly used in dentifrice?
A. Stannous fluoride, Potassium fluoride and Amine fluoride.
B. Sodium fluoride, Stannous fluoride and Sodium monofluorophosphate.
C. Sodium bi-fluorophosphate, Amine fluoride and Calcium fluoride.
D. Sodium fluoride, Fluorapatite and Calcium fluoride.
Which of the following mechanisms explains why using a cup to rinse the mouth with water after brushing with fluoridated dentifrice is linked to more caries?
A. Water makes fluoride more acidic.
B. Water diminishes fluoride’s ability to work as an antimicrobial.
C. Water reduces saliva production.
D. The large amount of water from using a cup as a rinsing aide flushes away the beneficial fluoride.
Which of the following types of fluoride should be recommended with caution due to the potential for it to cause pitting and etching of porcelain or composite restorations?
A. Stannous fluoride
B. Sodium monofluorophosphate
C. Acidulate phosphate fluoride
D. Sodium fluoride
Which of the following is true about professionally applied fluoride varnish?
A. Used correctly, it is linked to a 38% reduction in caries.
B. It forms a hardened deposit of calcium fluoride on the tooth acting as a reservoir for the release of fluoride over time.
C. It usually contains about 1,100 ppm of fluoride.
D. Professionally applied dental varnishes do not contain fluoride.