The first laser ever built in 1960 was ____________.
The first laser marketed to dentistry was ____________.
A. Er:YAG in 1995
B. Nd:YAG in 1990
C. Nd:YAG in 1987
D. A diode in 1991
Laser is an acronym for _______________.
A. light amplitude by simple emission of radiation
B. level amplified stimulated emission of radiation
C. light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation
D. lowered amplification of static emitted radiation
Dental laser beams are _______________.
A. monochromatic, non-coherent, and multidirectional
B. ionizing, monochromatic, and unidirectional
C. monochromatic, coherent, and unidirectional
D. non-ionizing, monochromatic, and emitted from a passive medium
Optical Pumping is used to achieve which step in laser creation?
Laser power is _______________.
A. the rate of energy used and is measured in watts
B. the amount of energy produced and is measured in millijoules
C. the product of pulses per second and wattage
D. greatest in diode lasers
The emission mode that has true pulsed bursts of laser energy is ____________.
B. free running pulsed
C. gated wave
A laser running in continuous mode’s peak power is _______________.
A. higher than its average power
B. lower than its average power
C. the same as its average power
D. why it is so useful for cutting enamel and dentin
Thermal relaxation refers to _______________.
A. the ability of biostimulation with lasers to relax skeletal muscle
B. the ability of biostimulation to dilate capillaries and increase blood flow
C. the ability of the active medium crystal to cool itself in free running pulsed mode
D. the tissues ability to absorb and dissipate heat to help minimize thermal damage with pulsed laser usage
The actual physical work done by a laser is mostly a result of which interaction?
Which of the following statements are true?
A. Erbium lasers primary chromophore is water and Nd:YAG lasers primary chromophores are pigments like hemoglobin or melanin.
2 lasers are primarily absorbed by water.
C. Shorter near infrared laser wavelengths of diodes and Nd:YAG exhibit greater tissue penetration than erbium lasers.
D. All of the above.
Fluorescence of tissue stimulated by laser light is mostly important in ____________.
A. caries diagnosis
C. periodontal therapies
D. A and B
The primary biological effect of lasers when performing soft tissue procedures is ____________.
When tissue is heated to 60 degrees C, _______________.
A. protein will begin to denature
B. tissue is vaporized
C. tissue will show signs of carbonization
D. None of the above.
Erbium lasers _______________.
A. all have identical wavelengths
B. all exhibit identical water absorption
C. are hard and soft tissue capable
D. run in continuous emission mode
When cutting hard tissue with an erbium laser, _______________.
A. longer pulse durations are preferable
B. minimal thermal effects are observed in adjacent tissue when used properly
C. shorter pulse durations have lower peak power
D. anesthesia is always needed when preparing teeth
Nd:YAG lasers _______________.
A. are available in multiple wavelengths
B. use primarily photoacoustic effects to work
C. are 1064 nm wavelength
D. exhibit minimal tissue penetration
Fibrin formation with an Nd:YAG laser _______________.
A. is maximized at a 650 microsecond pulse duration
B. can be utilized after an extraction to help form a clot in the socket
C. is useful when treating periodontal pockets
D. All of the above.
Diode lasers _______________.
A. are the most expensive of all types of dental lasers
B. are available in only a single wavelength
C. use a semiconductor stimulated by electricity to produce laser light
D. have hard tissue capabilities
Water is the primary chromophore for diode laser wavelengths. Diode lasers run in free running pulsed mode.
A. Both statements are true.
B. The first statement is true and the second statement is false.
C. The first statement is false and the second statement is true.
D. Both statements are false.
CO 2 Lasers _______________.
A. are the most recently developed of the dental lasers
B. do not use quartz optical fibers as their beam transfer hardware
C. have extensive hard tissue capabilities
D. are efficient at cutting tissue but exhibit poor hemostasis
When using dental lasers _______________.
A. safety glasses made specifically for the wavelength must be worn by all patients, staff, and observers
B. universal laser safety glasses can be used
C. only the patient needs to wear eye protection
D. no eye protection is needed when using an Nd:YAG laser
The laser plume _______________.
A. may contain hazardous chemicals and infectious agents
B. necessitates the need for high speed evacuation
C. is a reason for staff to wear high quality masks
D. All of the above.
The Diagnodent diagnostic laser _______________.
A. can only be used to diagnose class I caries
B. is 655 nm visible light
C. indicates all positive readings need to be restored
D. is not used on pediatric patients
When performing operative dentistry with erbium lasers enamel is removed via _______________.
C. photoacoustic ablation
D. very long pulse durations
Experienced erbium laser users usually _______________.
A. do not need local anesthesia for the majority of restorations
B. routinely remove amalgam with their lasers
C. only use their laser for class I and V lesions
D. anesthetize approximately half of the time
When considering soft tissue uses of lasers, _______________.
A. only diodes, Nd:YAG, and CO
2 lasers can be used
B. the practitioner does not need to understand the differing thermal and biological effects of differing wavelengths as all soft tissue lasers behave similarly
C. thermal relaxation does not matter as it only occurs when cutting hard tissue
D. None of the above.
For cutting bone, _______________.
A. any wavelength can be used, though they differ in their effectiveness
B. Er:YAG and Er,Cr:YSGG lasers have FDA clearance
C. erbium lasers cause much more damage to bone than surgical burs
D. narcotic analgesics are usually need post operatively when lasers are used
When submitting a laser resected biopsy, _______________.
A. no special instructions are needed
B. only lesions suspected of being dysplastic or malignant need to be examined microscopically
C. the dentist should indicate on the lab form that a laser was used and what type of laser
D. all lasers leave identical artifacts on the specimen
P.I.P.S. stands for _______________.
A. Photon Induced Plasma Streaming
B. Photon Induced Photoacoustic Streaming
C. Plasma Inverted Photonic Stimulation
D. Photon Inversion by Plasma Stimulation