Which of the following statements are correct with reference to healthcare personnel (HCP)? A. The term HCP refers to all paid and unpaid persons working in healthcare settings who have the potential for exposure to blood and OPIM. B. HCP include emergency medical service personnel, dental personnel, laboratory personnel, nurses, nursing assistants, physicians, technicians, therapists, pharmacists, and students and trainees. C. HCP include persons not directly involved in patient care but potentially exposed to blood and OPIM (e.g., clerical, dietary, housekeeping, security, maintenance, and volunteer personnel). D. All of the above are correct. An exposure that might place HCP at risk for HAIs is defined as an event that results in the transfer of pathogenic organisms from a source to a host by _______________. A. direct contact transmission B. indirect contact transmission C. respiratory transmission, i.e., inhalation of droplets or droplet nuclei (airborne transmission) D. All of the above are correct. All of the following statements related to a source person are correct EXCEPT which one? A. The source person may be a patient, another HCP, a visitor to the healthcare facility, or a house-hold member. B. A person with asymptomatic acute or chronic infections, in general, is non-infectious and does not qualify as a source person. C. The source person may have acute infection, or may be transiently or chronically colonized by pathogenic organisms. D. The source person with an acute or chronic infection may be asymptomatic. Which of the following statements is correct with reference to postexposure prophylaxis (PEP)? A. Key to successful postexposure management is the timely initiation of PEP. B. PEP is any preventive medical treatment, e.g., administration of vaccines, immune globulins, or antibacterial agents. C. PEP started in a timely manner after exposure to a pathogenic virus or bacteria is intended to prevent infection and the development of disease. D. All of the above are correct. An exposure that might place HCP at risk for HAIs with bloodborne pathogens (i.e., infection with hepatitis B, hepatitis C, or human immunodeficiency viruses) is defined as ______________________________. A. a percutaneous injury, e.g., needlestick or cut with a sharp object contaminated with blood or OPIM. B. direct contact of ocular, nasal, or oral mucous membranes with blood or OPIM. C. direct contact of nonintact skin, e.g., dermatitis, or chapped or abraded skin with blood and OPIM. D. All of the above are correct. All of the following segments related to wound care are correct EXCEPT which one? A. Percutaneous wounds and nonintact skin that have been in contact with blood or OPIM should be washed with soap and water. B. Mucous membranes that have been in contact with blood or OPIM should be flushed with water. C. Using antiseptics (e.g., chlorhexidine) for wound care or expressing fluid by squeezing the wound have been shown to reduce the risk for infection. D. Injecting antiseptics or disinfectants into a wound and the application of caustic agents (e.g., bleach) is not recommended. The content of an occupational exposure report should include the date and time of exposure and _______________. A. details of the procedures being performed B. details of the exposure C. type of exposure D. All of the above are correct. Within hours of exposure to a bloodborne pathogen, exposed HCP should presents for evaluation by an expert consultant with _______________. A. the incident report B. all available information about the source person C. HCP’s OSHA-mandated medical record maintained by the employer D. All of the above are correct. An unvaccinated or incompletely vaccinated HCP exposed to a HBsAg-positive source person should receive _______________. A. one dose of HBIG and the HepB vaccine series B. HepB vaccine series C. no treatment D. two doses of HBIG one month apart All of the following statements related to exposure to the HCV are correct EXCEPT which one? A. Immune globulin (IG) and antiviral agents are not recommended for PEP after exposure to HCV-positive blood or OPIM B. No guidelines exist for the treatment of acute HCV infection. C. Limited data indicate that antiviral therapy is not beneficial even when initiated early in the course of an acute HCV infection. D. Recommendations for postexposure evaluation and follow-up are intended to achieve early diagnosis of HCV infection. All of the following statements related to exposure to the HIV are correct except which one? The latest U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) guidelines emphasize the importance of _______________. A. prompt reporting of expert management of occupational exposures B. adherence to the recommended HIV PEP regimen C. follow-up of exposed HCP to including careful monitoring for adverse events related to PEP and for virologic, immunologic, and serologic signs of infection D. modified patient-care responsibilities of exposed HCP based solely on evidence of HIV exposure All of the following statements related to exposure to measles, mumps, or rubella are correct EXCEPT which one? A. If measles, mumps, or rubella exposure occurs in a healthcare setting, all case-patient contacts should be evaluated immediately for presumptive evidence of measles, mumps, or rubella immunity. B. Exposed HCP without evidence of immunity to the measles virus should be offered the MMR vaccine and an intramuscular dose of immune globulin (IG). C. Exposed HCP without evidence of immunity should be offered the MMR vaccine; however, antibodies develop slowly to the mumps component of the vaccine to provide effective prophylaxis after exposure. D. There is strong evidence that postexposure vaccination is effective in preventing rubella infection. All of the following statements related to exposure to the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) are correct EXCEPT which one? A. If VZV exposure occurs in a healthcare setting, all case-patient contacts should be evaluated immediately for presumptive evidence of immunity. B. All susceptible HCP exposed to the VZV should receive PEP with two subcutaneous doses (4-8 weeks apart) of the varicella-zoster vaccine (Varivax). C. Women exposed to the VZV at any stage of pregnancy should receive the varicella-zoster vaccine (Varivax) no later than 96 hours of an exposure. D. Susceptible HCP exposed to the VZV for whom the vaccine is contraindicated should be administered varicella-zoster immunoglobulin (VZIG). All of following statements related to exposure to the influenza viruses are correct EXCEPT which one? A. It is strongly recommended that HCP be vaccinated annually. B. An antiviral drug for PEP is recommended following healthcare-associated exposure to the influenza viruses. C. PEP with either oseltamivir or zanamivir, 1 dose daily for 10 days, is effective if initiated before the onset of illness. D. Watchful waiting and early treatment (when signs and symptoms of infection appear) with an antiviral agent is preferred to PEP. E. Antiviral agents, i.e., oseltamivir and zanamivir appear to be effective against both influenza A and B viruses. Which of the following statements related to exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MBT) are correct? A. HCP should obtain a baseline tuberculin skin test (TST), preferably a two-step TST, at the beginning of employment. B. HCP with a negative TST, in case of unprotected occupational exposure, are susceptible to infection. C. HCP with a previously negative TST or BAMT who subsequently have a positive TST result (a reaction ≥5 mm) or a positive BAMT result should be evaluated for treatment of LTBI. D. All of the above are correct. All of the following statements are related to Clostridium tetani, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, or Bordetella pertussis are correct EXCEPT which one? A. Following exposure to C. tetani, no PEP is indicated; exposed HCP should be monitored closely and human tetanus immune globulin (TIG) should be administered at the first sign(s) of illness. B. HCP in close contact with patients with diphtheria should be administered PEP, i.e., a dose of diphtheria toxoid booster Td) and antibacterial agents. C. HCP exposed to B. pertussis should receive PEP, i.e., antibacterial prophylaxis within 21 days of exposure when (1) at high risk of developing severe pertussis or (2) when close contact with patients at high risk is anticipated. D. If there is an increased risk of pertussis in a healthcare setting, evidenced by documented or suspected healthcare-associated transmission of pertussis, revaccination of HCP with Tdap should be considered. HCP with close or lengthy contact with a patient with meningococcal disease are considered at increased risk of infection and should receive PEP, i.e., antibacterial prophylaxis. A. True B. False It is common for contacts of patients with S. pneumoniae infection to develop pneumococcal infection; PEP with an effective antibacterial agent is recommended. A. True B. False Which of the following statements in reference exposure to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is correct? A. MRSA is primarily transmitted by direct contact with an infected skin lesion; less frequently by contact with contaminated articles and environmental surfaces. B. PEP is not recommended for HCP. C. Exposed HCP should be monitored for skin lesions; incision and drainage and adjunctive antibacterial coverage are the first step in treating purulent skin infections. D. All of the above are correct. Which of the following statements in reference to exposure to the hepatitis A virus (HAV) is correct? A. The HAV is transmitted primarily by the fecal-oral route, either person-to-person, i.e., close personal contact with an infected household member or sex partner; or consumption of contaminated food or water. B. The HAV is transmitted primarily by the fecal-oral route, either person-to-person, i.e., close personal contact with an infected household member or sex partner; or consumption of contaminated food or water. C. Anti-HA-positive HCP who have not been vaccinated previously should be administered PEP, i.e., a single dose of hepatitis A vaccine (Vaqta or Havrix) or immune globulin (IG) within 2 weeks after exposure. D. All of the above are correct.