Desquamative gingivitis may be present in various areas of the mouth and also may have varying appearances. However, they are commonly found _______________.
A. in the alveolar mucosa
B. in the gingival tissue
C. in the gingival tissue and the alveolar mucosa
D. generalized affecting both the alveolar and gingival tissue
E. localized and generalized in both the alveolar and gingival tissue
All of the following may be associated with desquamative gingivitis EXCEPT _______________.
A. Lichen planus
B. Erythema multiforme
C. Mucous membrane pemphigoid
D. Pemphigus vulgaris
E. Behcet's Syndrome
Baylor College of Dentistry data indicates that over 90% of desquamative gingivitis could be categorized into one of four conditions _______________.
A. oral lichen planus, mucous membrane pemphigoid, pemphigus vulgaris or hypersensitivity
B. oral lichen planus, mucous membrane pemphigoid, pemphigus vulgaris or erythema multiforme
C. coral lichen planus, foreign body granulomas, pemphigus vulgaris or hypersensitivity
D. Reiter's syndrome, mucous membrane pemphigoid, pemphigus vulgaris or hypersensitivity
E. oral lichen planus, mucous membrane pemphigoid, pemphigus vulgaris or orofacial granulomatosis
Desquamative gingivitis was originally believed in 1932 to be _______________.
B. developed by a virus
C. hormonal in women patients
D. predominately in men
E. affecting either sex but bacterial in nature
A key feature in desquamative gingivitis is _______________.
A. Nikolsy's sign
B. Dupuytren's sign
C. heavy plaque
D. deeper pocket formation
E. severe pain
Biopsy specimens are difficult to obtain because of _______________.
A. the location of the tissue
B. essential fibrous nature of the tissue
C. the heavy plaque accumulation
D. the inability to obtain the epithelial tissue layer
E. patient reluctance to consent to a tissue biopsy
In a survey by the International Pemphigus and Pemphigoid Foundation, a clinical diagnosis of oral lesions occurred after ______ months of time.
A. 2 months
B. 4 months
C. 6 months
D. 8 months
E. 10 months
The consolidation phase, cited by Brystyn and Scuibba, consists of _______________.
A. diagnosis of the disorder
B. therapy designed to reduce or eliminate the symptoms of the disease
C. reduction or elimination of continual therapy
D. long-term control of the disease process
E. retreatment of the existing disease state
Which of the following is most likely to exhibit oral lesions, cutaneous lesions and ocular involvement?
A. Pemphigus vulgaris
C. Lichen planus
D. Orofacial granulomatosis
E. Linear IGA disease
Negative immunofluorescence findings should be anticipated in biopsies of _______________.
A. Mucous Membrane Pemphigoid
B. Pemphigus vulgaris
C. Hypersensitivity reactions
D. Oral lichen planus
E. Erythema multiforme
When taking a biopsy specimen, the clinician should select tissue that is _______________.
A. in direct contact with the most severely ulcerated area
B. located only on desquamative gingiva
C. at the most apical area in the mouth
D. it makes no difference where the tissue sample is taken
E. selected because of an intact epithelial surface
An important point to remember when taking a biopsy is _______________.
A. take a minimal amount of tissue
B. do not inject anesthesia directly into the biopsy site
C. submit either a histological tissue sample or a sample for immunofluorescence
D. always take a sample of tissue from an uninvolved site
E. remove tissue from sites where no evident epithelium is present
A biopsy technique that works well in cases involving desquamative gingivitis by retention of intact epithelium is _______________.
A. the scalpel technique
B. the stab-and-roll technique
C. punch biopsy
D. non-serrated tissue forceps
E. any of the above techniques are acceptable
The special medium that is used to transport a DIF tissue specimen is named _______________.
A. Formalin solution-10% Neutral Buffered
B. Potassium hydroxide transport medium
C. Michel's transport media
D. Roxycin sodium bicarbonate transport media
E. Caldwell's solution
The use of fluorescence devices are sometimes indicated for desquamative gingivitis. The results may be skewed because _______________.
A. Desquamative gingivitis is more vascular than most other mucocutaneous disorders
B. Desquamative gingivitis usually produces a negative result
C. There are usually more keratotic cells present
D. Fluorescence results suggestive of malignancy may be seen in highly inflamed areas
E. Negative results occur because of the parakeratosis of the epithelium
Patients who have desquamative gingivitis have in the past been told that _______________.
A. desquamative gingivitis is a disorder that has been linked to Parkinson's disease
B. using certain spices and flavoring agents have caused the disorder
C. they need to learn to live with it
D. there is an association with heart disease
E. the disorder will resolve totally with time
The age range of individuals most often affected by oral lichen planus is _______________.
A. 20-30 years old
B. 30-60 years old
C. 40-70 years old
D. 50-80 years old
E. 20 and beyond
Direct Immunofluorescence may support the diagnosis of oral lichen planus because _______________.
A. there will be a separation of epithelial cells
B. the DIF confirms the type of lichen planus
C. DIF may confirm other “skin” disease states
D. a linear deposition of fibrin is noted at the basement membrane zone
E. cytoid bodies are never seen in DIF analysis
Oral lichen planus desquamative gingivitis is usually treated with a _______________ corticosteroid.
A. low potency cream
B. low potency mouthrinse
C. low potency ointment
D. high potency mouthrinse
E. high potency gel
Clobetasol 0.05% (cream) is considered a low dose topical corticosteroid and is recommended because the formulation is superior to the gel form.
A. The information is correct and the rationale is correct.
B. The information is wrong but the rationale is correct.
C. The information is wrong and the rationale is wrong.
D. The rationale is wrong but the information is correct.
E. The information is correct but the dosage of Clobetasol is wrong.
Dental hygiene patients with oral lichen planus often adhere to the following protocol _______________.
A. scaling procedures are needed yearly
B. use of ultrasonic scaling is recommended
C. use of stronger mouthrinses limit bacteria and candida
D. increased frequency of recall appointments (2-3 months) to maintain periodontal health
E. flossing is contraindicated when there is inter-proximal bleeding
Often the only clinical feature that is noted in mucous membrane pemphigoid may be _______________.
A. Nikolsky's sign
B. desquamative gingivitis
C. skin lesions
D. bullous oral lesions
E. genital lesions
A histological term that is used in the diagnosis of pemphigus vulgaris is _______________.
D. dense fibrous connective tissue
E. hyaline (amyloid)
Delayed oral hypersensitivity reactions are classified as _______________.
A. Type 1
B. Type 2
C. Type 3
D. Type 4
E. May be all of the above.
The most frequent cause of oral hypersensitivity reaction is _______________.
E. environmental agents