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  1. At least ______% of pregnant women experience some form of periodontal disease.
  1. It is currently the recommendation of the National Maternal and Child Health Resource Center that all pregnant patients and those seeking to become pregnant who have not seen a dentist in 6 months should be referred to a dentist.
  1. What is the most common form of periodontal disease in pregnant women?
  1. The severity of gingival inflammation during pregnancy has been linked to sex steroid secretion and increases as pregnancy progresses.
  1. Preterm birth is defined as delivery at less than ___________ of gestational age.
  1. Which of the following states has NOT achieved a preterm birth rate below the March of Dimes target of 8.1%?
  1. High pre-pregnancy BMI is a risk factor for preterm birth whereas low pre-pregancy BMI reduces the risk of preterm birth.
  1. Women with previous preterm births have a _______ increased risk for preterm birth in subsequent pregnancies.
  1. Plural gestations increase the risk of preterm birth.  What percentage of twins are born preterm?
  1. Maternal infections can induce the secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators, which in turn upregulate prostaglandin release. Prostaglandins can increase uterine contractility and increase the risk of spontaneous preterm birth.
  1. Women whose sister(s) had a preterm delivery are ______% more likely to also have a preterm delivery.
  1. Periodontal disease has been associated with preterm birth with an odds ratios (OR) ranging from _________ depending upon the level of prematurity and the definition of periodontal disease.
  1. Over ______% of spontaneous preterm births have an unknown cause.
  1. Which of the following putative periodontal pathogens have NOT been found in the amniotic fluid of subjects with preterm/low birth weight neonates?
  1. Bleeding on probing (BOP) is associated with an increasing risk of preterm birth.
  1. Treatment of periodontal diseases during pregnancy __________ improve periodontal health and is a safe therapy for both mother and fetus.