Folate Vitamin B12 and Iron Deficiencies

Principal sources of folate include fresh leafy vegetables, fruits, organ meats (e.g., liver), and enriched cereals and bread. Its major functions include maturation of red blood cells (RBCs); synthesis of purines pyrimidines, and methionine; and development of the fetal nervous system. Folate deficiency leads to megaloblastic anemia, neural tube-related birth defects, and mental confusion. Treatment is with folic acid. The risk of a perioperative MME is predicated on adverse drug effects and/or other, concurrent variables (Table 20).17,43

Principal sources of vitamin B12 include meats (e.g., beef, pork) and organ meats (e.g., liver); poultry and eggs; fortified cereals; and milk and milk products. Its major functions include maturation of RBCs; DNA synthesis: and myelin synthesis and repair. Vitamin B12 deficiency leads to megaloblastic anemia; and neurologic deficit characterized by confusion, paresthesia, and ataxia. Treatment is with vitamin B12. The risk of a perioperative MME is predicated on adverse drug effects and/or other, concurrent variables (Table 20).17,44

Principal sources of iron include meat (e.g., beef), organ meat (e.g., liver and kidney); beans and soybean flour; fish and clams; poultry; and enriched cereals and bread. Its major functions include hemoglobin and myoglobin formation, cytochrome enzyme activity, and iron-sulfur protein synthesis. Iron deficiency leads to anemia; a craving for nonfoods; restless leg syndrome; and rarely, dysphagia. Treatment is with ferrous sulfate. The risk of a perioperative MME is predicated on adverse drug effects and/or other, concurrent variables (Table 20).17,45

Table 20. Folic Acid, Vitamin B12, and Iron Supplements in the Top 200.17,43-45
CE 509 Table 20 Folic Acid, Vitamin B12 and Iron Supplements
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