Which of the following statements about the erosion versus caries processes is false?
A. Erosion occurs on the surface; caries development begins sub-surface.
B. Caries occurs on the surface, while erosion is a subsurface phenomenon.
C. Erosion is often the result of excessive ingestion of acidic beverages.
D. Unlike caries, which is a result of bacterial acids, erosion is a result of external acids.
Methods that have proven useful for measuring the progression of erosive lesions in the laboratory include _______________.
B. contact profilometry
C. confocal laser scanning microscopy
D. Only A and B
E. A, B and C
Which ingredient has the most evidence behind it demonstrating benefits to prevent erosive acid damage?
A. Sodium fluoride.
B. Sodium monofluorophosphate.
C. Stannous fluoride.
D. All of the above.
E. A and B.
Over time, the difference in erosion prevention effectiveness of SnF 2 over NaF, as measured in human in situ erosion prevention studies, becomes _______________.
A. more apparent
B. less apparent
The severity of erosive attacks depends on all of the following, EXCEPT ____________.
B. titratable acidity
C. buffer capacity
D. contact time on the teeth
E. number of carious teeth
Preventive habits that reduce the risk of ETW include _______________.
A. using effective whitening products
B. daily flossing
C. using chewing gum with Xylitol
D. eating whole meal bread
E. brushing with SnF
Which of the following low pH foods or beverages is not considered to be highly erosive?
A. Acid-containing vegetables
B. Fruit juices
D. Fresh fruits
Erosive Tooth Wear (ETW) is an umbrella term that includes: dental erosion, abfraction, attrition and ____________.
C. periodontal disease
D. essential oils
Gastric acids are never associated with erosive tooth wear (ETW).
C. It depends on which gastric acid is being considered.
The increasing prevalence of dental erosion is often related to significant increases in the consumption of _______________.
A. acid containing beverages
B. healthier foods, such as fruits and some vegetables
C. bottled water
D. A and B
E. A, B and C
Erosive tooth wear (ETW) is a multifactorial process that may include acid excesses and _______________.
A. abrasion alone
B. attrition alone
C. the functional forces of abrasion and attrition
D. soft bristle tooth brushing
Which of the following statements best describe acid erosion?
A. Dissolution of tooth surfaces by bacterial acids.
B. Dissolution of tooth surfaces by acids that are not of biological origin.
C. Dissolution of tooth surfaces by either dietary or gastric acids.
D. B and C
BEWE is an acronym for _______________.
A. Begin Erosion Wear Experiment
B. Basic Erosive Wear Exam
C. Basic Enamel Wasting Estimate
D. Biological Enamel Wear Evaluation
Which of the following dietary acids have erosive potential?
D. B and C
E. A and B
Dental erosion occurs when the pellicle, nature’s natural protection against erosion, is _______________.
A. overwhelmed by excessive exposure to dietary or gastric acids
B. supersaturated with calcium and phosphate from saliva
C. heavily stained
D. B and C
The process of dental erosion can be described by which of the following?
A. Surface removal due to abrasion of the sound tooth surface, followed by remineralization.
B. Surface softening due to erosive acid attack, followed by abrasive factors that can remove this softened layer, followed by additional softening.
C. Surface softening due to bacterial acid attack, followed by abrasive factors that can remove this softened layer, followed by additional softening.
D. Sub-surface demineralization of tooth mineral, ultimately leading to cavitation.
Which of the following statements is/are true?
A. Erosive tooth surface loss is a growing problem that is seen day-to-day in general practice.
B. Both enamel and dentin are susceptible to erosive tooth surface loss.
C. BEWE is a simple, quick index for screening a patient’s erosion status.
D. A, B and C
E. Only A and C
Which of the following statements is/are false?
A. Both enamel and dentin are susceptible to erosive tooth surface loss.
B. Recent studies indicate the average person in the United States consumes approximately 20 gallons of sugar sweetened beverages each year.
C. Dental erosion is increasing in children, adolescents and adults.
D. A and C
Stannous fluoride is more protective than other fluoride sources against dental erosion because _______________.
A. it deposits a protective, acid resistant layer on exposed tooth surfaces
B. it penetrates deeper into the tooth than other fluoride sources
C. it tastes better than other fluoride agents
D. it has been in use longer than other fluoride actives
Important aspects of managing patients with erosive tooth wear are _______________.
A. be familiar with and recognize tooth wear lesions at the earliest possible stage
B. implement preventive and treatment measures to preserve the tooth
D. A and B
E. A and C
The most important biological risk factor in Erosive Tooth Wear (ETW) is _______________.
A. the number of cavities the patient has
B. the type of bacteria present in the patient’s mouth
D. the age of the patient
Which of the following is the most dominant bacteria responsible for dental caries?
Although the prevalence of dental erosion has been reported to be between 7 - 74%, what is the generally accepted value describing the prevalence of dental erosion in teenagers and young adults?
The BEWE index divides the mouth into how many areas for evaluation?
Besides saliva, what is another key biological factor that can influence erosion?
A. Level of stain.
B. Hardness of the teeth.
C. The salivary pellicle.
D. The number of permanent teeth with cavities.