Obesity has been labeled a chronic disease by the American Medical Association (AMA) because fat cells (adipocytes) play an active role in the regulation and modulation of inflammation and immunity.
Periodontitis has both infectious and inflammatory components that ultimately result in clinical disease progression and tissue destruction. It has been shown to have an association with numerous systemic conditions in a bidirectional manner.
Obesity is defined by the American Medical Association (AMA) as a body mass index (BMI) of _______________?
In the United States, __________ income and educational levels are correlated to higher rates of obesity.
A recent study indicates that over _____% of U.S. adults have periodontitis.
A recent systematic review demonstrated odds ratio (OR) associations between periodontitis and body mass index (BMI) category obese of ______.
In patients with both periodontal diseae and obesity, the correlation between BMI and severity of periodontal attachment loss is _______________.
_______________ patients are more likely to demonstrate an association between overall and abdominal obesity and periodontal disease (when measured through attachment loss ≥3 mm, probing depth ≥4 mm, and alveolar bone loss).
Both clinical signs of periodontal inflammation and obesity levels are associated with increased plasma levels of which pro-inflammatory mediators?
Patients who are obese demonstrate a _______________ effect of periodontal therapy on systemic levels of CRP than lean patients.
Obese patients have shown _______________ numbers and proportions of pathogenic periodontal bacteria compared to lean patients.
Oral microbiota may affect obesity status by _______________.
While nonsurgical periodontal therapy has been shown to be effective in reducing clinical signs of periodontal disease in obese patients, most studies demonstrated overall _______________ levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines at baseline in obese patients when compared with their non-obese counterparts.
Which of the following systemic conditions has been associated with obesity and periodontal disease?
Co-management of patients with obesity and periodontal disease with their treating physician should be a standard practice to allow for _______________.