1. Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases all of which present with _______________.
  1. Approximately ______ of U.S. adults have diabetes.
  1. The most common form of diabetes, which is due to a progressive defect in insulin secretion as well as cellular insulin resistance, is _______________.
  1. “Prediabetes” consists of two types of abnormally elevated glucose levels that do not reach the threshold for diabetes mellitus. These are _______________.
  1. A diagnosis of diabetes may be made if a patient’s hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is ______.
  1. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends testing overweight or obese adults who have one or more risk factors for diabetes and all overweight and obese patients 45 years of age and older _______________ to identify diabetes and prediabetes diagnoses.
  1. In a patient with diabetes whose HbA1c levels were approximately 8%, this correlates to an average blood glucose level of 210 mg/dl.

    The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends physician intervention to improve glycemic control for patients with an HbA1c over 8%.
  1. Diabetes prevalence in the U.S. has increased approximately 2-fold between 1994 and 2014 and this increase follows obesity trends in the United States.
  1. Risk indicators for periodontal disease include all of the following EXCEPT _______________.
  1. Overall, research indicates that patients with diabetes have a _____-fold greater risk of developing periodontitis than their nondiabetic counterparts.
  1. Periodontitis has been referred to as the “sixth complication of diabetes” and worsening glycemic control is associated with higher rates and more significant destruction of periodontal structures.
  1. Patients with periodontitis and diabetes _______________ when compared with diabetic patients without periodontitis.
  1. Both diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease involve a significant dysfunction of the immune system. In diabetic patients the nonexzymatic addition of glucose to proteins, produces advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which activate receptors (RAGE) and upregulate pro-inflammatory mediators.
  1. Current studies indicate that periodontal therapy may result in _______________ medical costs based upon insurance data in a large cohort.
  1. In patients with diabetes and periodontitis, adjunctive periodontal treatments and management of comorbid conditions, should be encouraged for optimal overall and oral health.