1. If you are reading a research study and it reports the correlation coefficient between 2 variables being studied as r = 0.3 you can conclude that there is:
  1. Level 1 evidence is considered to be found in:
  1. The ‘measurement of association’ used in case-control studies is the:
  1. A study you are reading investigating the relationship between adverse pregnancy outcomes and periodontal disease, reports an odd’s ratio of 1.8 and indicates it is statistically significant. How would you interpret this finding in terms of the strength of the association?
  1. Which of the Bradford Hill criteria refers to the following statement: “the exposure must precede the outcome?
  1. If numerous studies report that the number of cigarettes that one smokes affects the severity of periodontal disease, which of the following Bradford Hill criteria does this finding relate to?
  1. Animal studies and laboratory studies can be used to apply the Bradford Hill criterion of:
  1. Although a causal link has been concluded regarding the relationship between smoking and periodontal disease, which of the following Bradford Hill criteria were NOT able to be satisfied?
  1. What is the reason that part of your answer in question # 8 above could NOT be satisfied?
  1. Case Scenario: Are there published RCT’s, cohort studies or systematic reviews that satisfy the Bradford Hill criteria of temporality:
  1. Case Scenario: Is the strength of the evidence for this claim demonstrated by OR’s or RR’s?
  1. Case Scenario: What were the outcomes of the studies in terms of the strength of the evidence?
  1. Case Scenario: Were the findings of the studies consistent?
  1. Case Scenario: Was there sufficient evidence in the studies to demonstrate specificity of periodontal disease affecting heart disease?
  1. Case Scenario: Was there any evidence of a dose-response in the literature? (i.e. spell out, for example: The more severe the disease, the higher the risk?)
  1. Case Scenario: Is this proposed relationship biologically plausibility?
  1. Case Scenario: Were there any experiment studies conducted for this relationship (i.e., RCT’s)?
  1. Case Scenario: Have there been any animal/lab studies showing this to be true (i.e., analogy)?
  1. What is your conclusion to the question asked in the case scenario listed within the course – “Will my periodontal disease cause me to have heart disease?”
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