Which of the following factors does NOT contribute to developing chronic diseases?
A. Exposure to secondhand smoke
B. Fluoride in drinking water
C. Lack of physical activity
D. Excessive alcohol use
When assessing the patient, the medical history should include the patient’s physical limitations and cognitive status.
The risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease is increased in _______________.
A. people who eat a lot of chocolate
B. people who have more years of formal education
C. people who are currently smoking
D. None of the above.
Informed consent is NOT legally necessary _______________.
A. when a spouse is present at the dental appointment
B. if a patient is not submitting an insurance claim
C. in emergency situations when the dental provider is acting in the best interest of the patient
D. when a procedure is reversible
Rheumatoid arthritis only affects joints, tissues surrounding the joints, and connective tissue.
Which of the chronic diseases listed below increases the risk for developing gout?
A. Chronic heart failure
C. Parkinson’s disease
D. Multiple sclerosis
Asthma medications do not increase the risk of _____________.
A. mouth breathing
B. dental caries
C. oral cancer
D. oral candidiasis
E. dental erosion
_____________ have been associated with bruxism and TMD.
_____________ is an autoimmune disease where the pancreas does not make enough insulin.
A. Type 1 diabetes
B. Type 2 diabetes
C. Gestational diabetes
Urinating often at night, smell of acetone on breath, and weight loss without trying are signs and symptoms of _____________.
HbA1c levels below _____ indicate the patient’s diabetes in well controlled.
Shortness of breath, fatigue, and swelling of the lower extremities, stomach, and veins in the neck are signs and symptoms of _____________.
B. Heart failure
C. Multiple sclerosis
Patients who are taking Warfarin should discontinue or alter their dose for most dental procedures.
According to the American Heart Association guidelines, a blood pressure range of 145/100 is considered _______________.
C. High blood pressure–stage 1
D. High blood pressure–stage 2
E. Hypertensive crisis
Elective dental treatment should be postponed for patients who have uncontrolled high blood pressure (≥ 180/110 mm Hg).
Multiple sclerosis is _______________.
A. an auto-immune disease of the central nervous system
B. an immune-mediated disease of the central nervous system
C. an auto-immune disease of the circulatory system
D. an immune-mediated disease of the circulatory system
Which of the following is NOT a typical motor or sensory abnormality that individuals diagnosed with MS may experience?
A. Hearing loss
D. Bladder dysfunction
One of the more common symptoms of multiple sclerosis is depression.
The etiology of Parkinson’s disease is most likely _______________.
A. genetic factors
B. environmental toxins or injury
C. an illness
D. All of the above.
Oral impairments from Parkinson’s disease may lead to all of the following EXCEPT _______________.
A. poor oral health
B. decreased quality of life
C. increased risk for oral cancer
D. increased risk for developing oral infections
Sudden numbness of the face, arm, or leg on one side of the body is a classic sign and symptom of _______________.
B. Chronic heart failure
C. Multiple sclerosis
Patients who have experienced a stroke should never be given a vasoconstrictor.