Panoramic radiographic images are recommended in each of the following clinical situations EXCEPT _______________.
A. evaluation of the mixed dentition
B. examination of edentulous alveolar ridges
C. evaluation of periodontal furcation involvement
D. evaluation of third molar teeth development and position
Which selection is an accurate description of panoramic x-ray machines?
A. X-ray source rotates in front of the patient's face during exposure.
B. Operator can adjust the kVp and mA but not the exposure time.
C. Aperture of the x-ray beam source is circular in shape.
D. Image receptor is aligned at a -10º angulation.
Artifacts can be produced on panoramic images when the clinician does not pay attention to technical details. Which of the following scenarios would produce radiopaque artifacts?
A. Head and neck jewelry not removed prior to exposure.
B. Patient’s lips not completely closed around the bite block.
C. Patient’s tongue was not placed flat against the hard palate.
D. X-ray head or receptor contact with the shoulder during exposure.
Which selection is descriptive of panoramic imaging technique?
A. Oral prostheses can be left in the mouth during patient exposure.
B. A thyroid collar cannot used because it will block the x-ray beam.
C. The patient should bite in normal occlusion on the panoramic bite block.
D. The object-to-receptor distance is reduced compared to intraoral imaging.
Which selection is NOT an accurate description of the focal trough?
A. Predetermined layer of structures.
B. Sometimes referred to as the image layer.
C. Located between the image receptor and the x-ray source.
D. Narrower in the posterior region and wider in the anterior.
Panoramic imaging demonstrates each of the following features except one. Which one is this exception?
A. The side closest to the receptor is recorded in focus on the resultant image.
B. The clinician aligns the patient’s head according to specific anatomical planes.
C. The x-ray beam travels in a labial to lingual direction just like in intraoral imaging.
D. The x-ray beam rotates behind the patient’s head while the receptor rotates in front.
Which criterion is NOT associated with a diagnostic panoramic radiographic image?
A. Clear view of the interproximal teeth contacts.
B. Slight smile configuration of the occlusal plane.
C. Symmetrical display of the anatomic structures right to left.
D. Entire maxilla, mandible and temporomandibular joints displayed.
When determining ideal panoramic image density, what is the best region to examine to assess adequate density?
A. Dentinoenamel junction on molars.
B. Mandibular parasymphyseal area.
C. Maxillary sinus cavity anatomy.
D. Gonial angle of the mandible.
Which of the following problems would produce a high-density panoramic image?
A. Kilovoltage control set too low for the patient.
B. Operator let go of the exposure switch too early.
C. Use of child exposure factors for an adult patient.
D. Overestimation of patient size, stature, bone density.
What anatomic structure is identified by the arrow on this panoramic image?
A. Hyoid bone
B. Styloid process
C. External oblique ridge
D. Mandibular canal space
What is the anatomic structure identified by the arrow on this panoramic image?
A. Zygomatic process
B. Maxillary sinus
C. Nasal septum
D. Hard palate
Several visual features of the dentition can be used to assess whether the teeth are positioned correctly within the focal trough. Which selection is a visual assessment feature?
A. Anterior teeth in focus with pulp canal clearly seen.
B. A grin or pronounced upward curve of teeth.
C. Tooth size discrepancy on left or right side.
D. Anterior teeth shape narrow in width.
Which phrase is inconsistent with the appearance of panoramic ghost images?
A. Recorded on the same side as the original object.
B. Magnified and unsharp in their presentation.
C. Location is higher than the original object.
D. Same general shape as the original object.
What error would cause of the production of a wedge-shaped radiopaque artifact near the midline on panoramic image?
A. The patient did not place his/her tongue against the hard palate.
B. The lead apron was placed too high up on the back of the patient's neck.
C. The operator let go of the exposure switch momentarily during the procedure.
D. The patient’s spinal column was slumped and obscured the image of the midline.
What type of image distortion is characteristic of midsagittal head plane errors?
A. The occlusal plane forms a frown configuration.
B. A triangular radiopacity is superimposed over the midline.
C. The lower teeth are foreshortened and blurred in appearance.
D. Structures are narrow on one side and wide on the other side.
What type of error is produced when the head is tilted to one side?
A. The maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth are blurred and widened.
B. The occlusal plane and the lower border of the mandible are canted.
C. Excessive ghosting of the cervical spine and the rami occurs.
D. The maxillary anterior teeth are blurred and elongated.
Examine this panoramic image carefully. What correction does the clinician need to make to improve the diagnostic quality of the image?
A. Realign the dental midline.
B. Straighten the patient’s cervical spine position.
C. Lower the vertical placement of the patient’s head.
D. Instruct the patient to bite end-to-end in the bite block groove.
What type of distortion will occur if the patient’s head is positioned too high up?
A. The hard palate is superimposed over maxillary teeth apices.
B. The occlusal plane will display a grin-like configuration.
C. The posterior teeth will appear narrowed and blurred.
D. The hyoid bone will superimpose over the mandible.
When the patient’s head is positioned too far down, which manifestations will the clinician observe on the panoramic image?
A. One side of the arches will appear stretched while the other side will be narrowed.
B. The maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth will appear blurred and widened.
C. The occlusal plane will display a big grin or jack-o-lantern configuration.
D. A wedge-shaped radiopacity appears adjacent to the patient's midline.
If the patient’s head is positioned too far back, what type of distortion will be evident on the panoramic image?
A. The cervical spine will superimpose over the ramus on both sides of the image.
B. The maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth will be blurred and widened.
C. The condyles will be pushed off the top of the image bilaterally.
D. The hyoid bone will be superimposed over the mandible.