What is the highest level of evidence in the “pyramid of evidence”?
A. Cohort studies
B. Case-control studies
C. Expert opinion
D. Systematic review and Meta-analysis
Double blinding usually includes _______________.
A. blinding of patients and examiners to the product
B. helping blind participants get the same experience during the study
C. making sure the patients are not aware of the study aims
D. not disclosing the results of the study before the completion of the investigation
What is unique in cross-over study design?
A. Crossing over each patient that competed the study in order not to call them again.
B. Each patient receives different treatments during the different time periods (cross over from one treatment to another during the course of the trial).
C. Every patient receives the same treatment throughout the study in order to keep it very consistent.
D. Cross-over study design is another name for case-control study design.
How many major phases are in the process of clinical trials required for a drug or a medical devise to move from the lab-work, towards becoming a drug in the market?
A. Ten phases with different populations and examiners that are blinded.
B. Four phases (I, IIa, IIb, III and IV).
C. All phases start after the marketing of the drug.
D. There are 5 phases that take about a year to complete.
What phase is done post-marketing of the drug?
Which phase is referred to as the ‘first in-man studies’?
What is the ‘direction of the question’ in cohort studies typically?
A. Backwards – “What happened in the past?”
B. Forward – “What will happen?”
C. Current – “What is happening at the moment?”
D. There is not direction at all for cohort studies.
How can we double blind a study comparing manual to electric toothbrush?
A. Blinding of patients and examiners to the product.
B. Making sure the patients are not aware of the study aims.
C. Not disclosing the results of the study before the completion of the investigation.
D. This study cannot be double blinded – patients cannot be blinded to the type they are using.
A. A figure describing growth of trees in the forest.
B. A graph used in cohort studies to show the difference between the control group and the experimental group using bars.
C. A graphical display of estimated results from a number of scientific studies in a meta-analysis.
D. A calculation of density in populations.
Clinical trials and investigations can be used for _______________.
A. disease prevalence/ occurrence assessment, exploration of confounding factors for diseases, comparing treatment options
B. animal modeling of a disease
C. laboratory testing of a new drug
D. development of vaccine in the first stages of RNA duplication