What is the major buffer inside saliva?
A. Sodium hydroxide
C. Sodium fluoride
Which is a function of saliva for preventing caries?
A. Lubricating the mouth
B. Enzymatic breakdown of carbohydrates
C. Reservoir for ions in tooth mineral
D. Enhancing taste
What is the critical pH of enamel?
Which of these sugars is a fermentable sugar?
Carbohydrates in foods such as potato chips can be cariogenic.
How do diet sodas cause damage to tooth structure?
A. By providing fermentable sugar to oral bacteria
B. Through direct erosion due to their low pH
C. Both A and B
D. Neither A nor B
According to the Cochrane review, which was shown to be more effective with manual toothbrushes relative to electric toothbrushes?
A. Plaque removal
B. Reduction in gingivitis
C. Relief of halitosis
D. Both A and B
E. A, B and C
How does stannous fluoride help prevent gingivitis?
A. The fluoride strengthens root dentin.
B. The fluoride recruits inflammatory cytokines.
C. The tin binds to the LPS toxin in gram negative bacteria.
D. The tin binds to root dentin and repels bacteria through electric charge.
How much fluoride is in most non-prescription fluorides?
A. 1 part-per-million
B. 100 parts-per-million
C. 1000 parts-per-million
D. 5000 parts-per-million
Patients should be instructed to rinse their mouths following brushing with fluoridated toothpaste.