How are pandemics primarily defined?
A. Growth rate.
B. The spread of the disease.
C. Animal to human transmission.
D. The type of organism responsible for the infection.
SARS‑CoV‑2 is a zoonotic human coronavirus closely related to all the following EXCEPT:
A. Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)
C. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
D. Coronaviruses that cause up to 25% of the common cold
The following are true of the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19) EXCEPT:
A. The virus attaches to specific molecules on the host cell surface.
B. Viral entry into host cells causes a massive immune response.
C. SARS‑CoV‑2 promotes inflammatory responses on the endothelial cells that form the blood-brain barrier.
D. The virus only affects the outside surface of the host cells.
To fully understand population-level immunity, it is important to screen for _______________.
A. Antibody immunity
B. T cell immunity
C. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)
D. Antibody and T cell immunity
The cytokine storm can best be described as _______________.
A. an interaction between the body's two main lines of defense may be causing the immune system to go into overdrive in some patients
B. the adaptive immune response
C. the innate immune response
D. T cells
What is potentially more lethal to the human body?
C. The host immuno-inflammatory response
Which if the following concerning vaccines is NOT true?
A. A vaccine which is designed to protect against one infection could protect against other infections.
B. Vaccines cause the body to make antibodies.
C. Vaccines work by reprogramming stem cells that give rise to cells involved in a late innate immune response.
D. Vaccines train the body’s fast-acting and less specific innate immune system, improving its ability to fight off many kinds of infections.
All of the following are true about herd immunity EXCEPT:
A. Represents the concept of protection of the population from infection which is achieved by the presence of immune individuals.
B. Can be achieved only by receiving a vaccination.
C. Herd immunity connotes that the whole community becomes protected, not just those who are immune.
D. The herd immunity threshold implies that the proportion of the population that is immune to the disease is greater than this threshold, and the spread of the disease will decline.
The connection between COVID‑19 and oral health is likely associated by _______________.
A. cytokines TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8
A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, B. forsythus, C. rectus, E. nodatum, P. micros, S. intermedius and Treponema sp.
Three types of tests are available for COVID‑19. Which of the following is NOT recommended for disease identification?
A. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
B. Antigen test
C. Antibody test
D. Pooled sample screening tests
mRNA vaccines for the coronavirus _______________.
A. use a common vaccine technology
B. contain an attenuated form of the virus
C. contain a live form of the virus
D. contain material that provides cells instructions for how to make a protein that is unique to the virus
Which of the following statements is NOT true?
A. All states allow dentists and dental hygienists to administer the vaccine.
B. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services is amending an emergency declaration under the Public Readiness and Emergency Preparedness Act to authorize additional providers to vaccinate patients for COVID‑19 nationwide.
C. The federal declaration allows licensed dentists throughout the country to vaccinate the public against COVID‑19, regardless of state laws that prevent dentists from doing so.
D. The expanded list of providers does not include dental hygienists.
The following are true EXCEPT:
A. Viruses constantly mutate and change over time.
B. The emergence of variants has raised concerns.
C. The Pfizer/BioNTech COVID‑19 vaccine is very effective against the more infectious Brazilian strain.
D. Several variants likely have evolved more efficient ways of binding to and entering cells.
A. Is necessary so travelers can prove that they have been vaccinated.
B. The World Health Organization (WHO) is in favor of a vaccine passport.
C. The WHO does not recommend vaccine passports as it is currently unknown if vaccinations can reduce disease transmission.
D. A and B
E. A and C
Which of the following is NOT true about vaccines?
A. White blood cells (macrophages, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes) help to fight the possible infection but have no role in vaccines.
B. The antigens are produced by macrophages.
C. B-lymphocytes produce the antibodies.
D. Vaccines work by creating cellular “memory” of a virus or viral components.