References

  1. American Dental Association and Food and Drug Administration. Dental radiographic examinations: Recommendations for patient selection and limiting exposure. American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration. Revised 2012. Accessed October 06, 2015.
  2. Rushton VE, Horner K, Worthington HV. Routine panoramic radiography of new adult patients in general dental practice: relevance of diagnostic yield to treatment and identification of radiographic selection criteria. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2002 Apr;93(4):488-95.
  3. Rushton VE, Horner K, Worthington HV. Screening panoramic radiography of new adult patients: diagnostic yield when combined with bitewing radiography and identification of selection criteria. Br Dent J. 2002 Mar 9;192(5):275-279.
  4. Parks ET, Williamson GF. Digital radiography: an overview. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2002 Nov 15;3(4):23-39.
  5. Martins MG, Haiter Neto F, Whaites EJ. Analysis of digital images acquired using different phosphor storage plates (PSPs) subjected to varying reading times and storage conditions. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2003 May;32(3):186-90.
  6. Goren AD, Lundeen RC, Deahl ST 2nd, et al. Updated quality assurance self-assessment exercise in intraoral and panoramic radiography. American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Radiology Practice Committee. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2000 Mar;89(3):369-74.
  7. Goren AD, Lundeen RC, Deahl ST 2nd, et al. Common errors in panoramic radiography of edentulous patients. J Prosthodont. 1994 Jun;3(2):68-73.
  8. White SC, Heslop EW, Hollender LG, et al. Common positioning and technical errors in panoramic radiography. J Am Dent Assoc. 1986 Sep;113(3):422-6.
  9. White SC, Pharoah MJ. Oral radiology: principles and interpretation, 6th ed. St. Louis, Mo.: Mosby 2009.
  10. Ludlow JB, Davies-Ludlow LE, White SC. Patient risk related to common dental radiographic examinations: the impact of 2007 International Commission on Radiological Protection recommendations regarding dose calculation. J Am Dent Assoc. 2008 Sep;139(9):1237-43.
  11. Lee GS, Kim JS, Seo YS, et al. Effective dose from direct and indirect digital panoramic units. Imaging Sci Dent. 2013 Jun;43(2):77-84.
  12. Rushton VE, Horner K, Worthington HV. The quality of panoramic radiographs in a sample of general dental practices. Br Dent J. 1999 Jun 26;186(12):630-633.
  13. Brezden NA, Brooks SL. Evaluation of panoramic dental radiographs taken in private practice. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1987 May;63(5):617-621.
  14. Courter BJ. Pseudofractures of the mandible secondary to motion artifact. Am J Emerg Med. 1994 Jan;12(1):88-89.

Additional Resources

  • No Additional Resources Available

Additional Information

Acknowledgements
  • Mr. Thomas Meador, photographer, for preparation of some of the photographic illustrations.
  • Mr. Mark Dirlam, graphic artist, for preparation of the graphic illustrations.
  • Ms. Nicole Guerrettaz, administrative assistant.
  • Mr. Terry Wilson, dental illustrations and served as a model for images used in this presentation.
  • Rebecca Gottman, dental assistant and served as a model for images used in this presentation.

At the University of Louisville School of Dentistry:

  • Ms. Susan Grammer, Associate Professor in the Department of Periodontics, Endodontics and Dental Hygiene for providing numerous panoramic images used in this presentation demonstrating radiographic errors.
  • Ms. Rebecca Miller, radiologic technologist assisting in developing photographic material and served as a model for images used in this presentation.
  • Barbara Mercer, radiologic technologist assisting in developing photographic material.