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Biological Effects of Radiation


Hassem Geha, DDS, MDS, Diplomate of the ABOMR

Credit Hours:

1 Hour(s)


Biological Effects of Radiation discusses the interaction of ionizing radiation with biological systems and how this affects the integrity of cellular proteins, including DNA. In addition, it present the short- and long-term effects of radi...

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Biological Effects of Radiation discusses the interaction of ionizing radiation with biological systems and how this affects the integrity of cellular proteins, including DNA. In addition, it present the short- and long-term effects of radiotherapy associated with treating head and neck tumors on normal tissues.

Syllabus: Dental Radiology

The information in this 12-module syllabus is intended (1) to meet elements of initial educational/training requirements for Dental Students, Dental Hygiene Students, and Dental Assistant Students related to dental radiography; (2) to provide a framework for an in-service training program in oral healthcare settings to meet annual educational/training requirements as mandated by federal, state, local and professional organizations; and (3) to serve as a resource for oral healthcare personnel wishing to review evidence-based information on specific topics related to dental radiography. A PDF is available for each module that may serve as a convenient resource.

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  • Intended Audience:

    Dentists, Dental Hygienists, Dental Assistants, Dental Students, Dental Hygiene Students, Dental Assisting Students

  • Date Course Online:

    Apr 1, 2019

  • Last Revision Date:

    Jun 27, 2022

  • Course Expiration Date:

    Jun 26, 2025

  • Cost:


  • Method:


  • AGD Subject Code(s):

    731, 138

Learning Objectives

Upon completion of this course, the dental professional should be able to:

  • Explain the difference between nonionizing and ionizing radiation.
  • Discuss the mechanisms of free radical generation.
  • Discuss potential cell damage related to direct and indirect ionization.
  • Discuss, in general terms, the effect of free radicals on cellular proteins as a function of the various phases of the cell cycle.
  • Discuss the effect of radiation dose on cell dynamics.
  • Discuss the effects of high-dose ionizing radiation on tumor cells.
  • Discuss the deterministic effects (short-term and long-term) of high dose radiation normal tissues in the head and neck.
  • Discuss stochastic effects and mutations associated with ionizing radiation.


  • P&G is providing these resource materials to dental professionals. We do not own this content nor are we responsible for any material herein.
  • Participants must always be aware of the hazards of using limited knowledge in integrating new techniques or procedures into their practice.  Only sound evidence-based dentistry should be used in patient therapy.

Note:  Registration is required to take test.


Conflict of Interest Disclosure Statement

  • Dr. Geha reports no conflicts of interest associated with this course. He has no relevant financial relationships to disclose

Hassem Geha

DDS, MDS, Diplomate of the ABOMR

Hassem Geha is a Professor in the Department of Comprehensive Dentistry, and the director of the Advance Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology program at the University of Texas Health Sciences Center. He received his dental degree from Saint Jos...

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Submission Information

Academy of General Dentistry (AGD) Submission For credit transfers to appear in your AGD account in real time, make sure to add your AGD membership number in the field provided on the “Share Your Test Score” page.

CE Broker For all states that use CE Broker for licensure, “proof of completions” are electronically reported the first of every month. If a course was taken in November, the “proof of completion” will be submitted the beginning of December.



ADA CERP Recognized Provider

The Procter & Gamble Company is an ADA CERP Recognized Provider.

ADA CERP is a service of the American Dental Association to assist dental professionals in identifying quality providers of continuing dental education. ADA CERP does not approve or endorse individual courses or instructors, nor does it imply acceptance of credit hours by boards of dentistry.

Concerns or complaints about a dental CE provider may be directed to the provider or to ADA CERP at

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Approved PACE Program Provider


Nationally Approved PACE Program Provider for FAGD/MAGD credit.

Approval does not imply acceptance by any regulatory authority or AGD endorsement.

8/1/2021 to 7/31/2027

Provider ID# 211886


AADH Approved Program Provider

Procter & Gamble is designated as an approved Provider by the American Academy of Dental Hygiene, Inc. #AADHPGC (January 1, 2022-December 31, 2023). Approval does not imply acceptance by a state or provincial Board of Dentistry. Licensee should maintain this document in the event of an audit.