1. Clark GT, Nachnani S, Messadi DV. Detecting and treating oral and nonoral malodors. J Calif Dent Assoc. 1997 Feb;25(2):133-44.
  2. Scully C, el-Maaytah M, Porter SR, et al. Breath odor: etiopathogenesis, assessment and management. Eur J Oral Sci. 1997 Aug;105(4):287-93.
  3. Durham TM, Malloy T, Hodges ED. Halitosis: knowing when 'bad breath' signals systemic disease. Geriatrics. 1993 Aug;48(8):55-9.
  4. Messadi DV. Oral and nonoral sources of halitosis. J Calif Dent Assoc. 1997 Feb;25(2):127-31.
  5. Tonzetich J. Oral malodour: an indicator of health status and oral cleanliness. Int Dent J. 1978 Sep;28(3):309-19.
  6. De Boever EH, De Uzeda M, Loesche WJ. Relationship between volatile sulfur compounds, BANA-hydrolyzing bacteria and gingival health in patients with and without complaints of oral malodor. J Clin Dent. 1994;4(4):114-9. doi: 10.1177/00220345940730050401.
  7. Kozlovsky A, Gordon D, Gelernter I, et al. Correlation between the BANA test and oral malodor parameters. J Dent Res. 1994 May;73(5):1036-42. doi: 10.1177/00220345940730050401.
  8. Kleinberg I, Westbay G. Oral malodor. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med. 1990;1(4):247-59.
  9. Tonzetich J, Carpenter PA. Production of volatile sulphur compounds from cysteine, cystine and methionine by human dental plague. Arch Oral Biol. 1971 Jun;16(6):599-607.
  10. Yaegaki K, Suetaka T. Periodontal disease and precursors of oral malodorous components. J of Dental Health, 1989;39: 733-741. 10.5834/jdh.39.733. Accessed January 17, 2019.
  11. Tonzetich J. Production and origin of oral malodor: a review of mechanisms and methods of analysis. J Periodontol. 1977 Jan;48(1):13-20. doi: 10.1902/jop.1977.48.1.13.
  12. Kleinberg I, Codipilly M. (1995) The biological basis of oral malodor formation, In: Bad Breath Research Perspectives, M. Rosenberg, ed., Ramont Publishing, Tel Aviv University, pp13-39.
  13. Tonzetich J. Direct gas chromatographic analysis of sulphur compounds in mouth air in man. Arch Oral Biol. 1971 Jun;16(6):587-97.
  14. Tonzetich J, Richter VJ. Evaluation of Volatile Odoriferous Components of Saliva. Arch Oral Biol. 1964 Jan-Feb;9:39-46.
  15. Miyazaki H, Sakao S, Katoh Y, et al. Correlation between volatile sulphur compounds and certain oral health measurements in the general population. J Periodontol. 1995 Aug;66(8):679-84. doi: 10.1902/jop.1995.66.8.679.
  16. De Boever EH, Loesche WJ. Assessing the contribution of anaerobic microflora of the tongue to oral malodor. J Am Dent Assoc. 1995 Oct;126(10):1384-93.
  17. Kostelc JG, Preti G, Zelson PR, et al. Oral odors in early experimental gingivitis. J Periodontal Res. 1984 May;19(3):303-12.
  18. McDowell JD, Kassebaum DK. Diagnosing and treating halitosis. J Am Dent Assoc. 1993 Jul;124(7):55-64.
  19. Yaegaki K, Sanada K. Biochemical and clinical factors influencing oral malodor in periodontal patients. J Periodontol. 1992 Sep;63(9):783-9. doi: 10.1016/j.otohns.2004.02.044.
  20. Finkelstein Y, Talmi YP, Ophir D, et al. Laser cryptolysis for the treatment of halitosis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2004 Oct;131(4):372-7. doi: 10.1016/j.otohns.2004.02.044.
  21. Young K, Oxtoby A, Field EA. Halitosis: a review. Dent Update. 1993 Mar;20(2):57-9, 61.
  22. Bosy A, Kulkarni GV, Rosenberg M, et al. Relationship of oral malodor to periodontitis: evidence of independence in discrete subpopulations. J Periodontol. 1994 Jan;65(1):37-46. doi: 10.1902/jop.1994.65.1.37.
  23. Miyazaki H, Sakao S, Katoh Y, et al. Oral Malodour in the General Population of Japan. In: Bad Breath Research Perspectives, Rosenberg M. (ed). Tel Aviv Ramont Publishing, 1995: 120-136.
  24. Loesche WJ, Grossman N, Dominguez L, et al. (1996) Oral malodor in the Elderly. In: van Steenberghe D, Rosenberg M (eds): Bad Breath: A Multidisciplinary Approach. University of Leuven Press;181-194.
  25. Annon JS. The Behavioral Treatment Of Sexual Problems. S. Hagerstown, Md: Medical Dept., Harper & Row, 1976.
  26. Tonzetich J, Ng SK. Reduction of malodor by oral cleansing procedures. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1976 Aug;42(2):172-81.
  27. Spielman AI, Bivona P, Rifkin BR. Halitosis. A common oral problem. NY State Dent J. 1996 Dec;62(10):36-42.
  28. Yaegaki K, Coil JM. Examination, classification, and treatment of halitosis; clinical perspectives. J Can Dent Assoc. 2000 May;66(5):257-61.
  29. Goldberg RL, Buongiorno PA, Henkin RI. Delusions of halitosis. Psychosomatics. 1985 Apr;26(4):325-7, 331. doi: 10.1016/S0033-3182(85)72865-4.
  30. Tinanoff N. Review of the antimicrobial action of stannous fluoride. J Clin Dent. 1990;2(1):22-7.
  31. Tinanoff N. Progress regarding the use of stannous fluoride in clinical dentistry. J Clin Dent. 1995;6 Spec No:37-40.
  32. Beiswanger BB, Doyle PM, Jackson RD, et al. The clinical effect of dentifrices containing stabilized stannous fluoride on plaque formation and gingivitis—a six-month study with ad libitum brushing. J Clin Dent. 1995;6 Spec No:46-53.
  33. Perlich MA, Bacca LA, Bollmer BW, et al. The clinical effect of a stabilized stannous fluoride dentifrice on plaque formation, gingivitis and gingival bleeding: a six-month study. J Clin Dent. 1995;6 Spec No:54-8.
  34. Mankodi S, Petrone DM, Battista G, et al. Clinical efficacy of an optimized stannous fluoride dentifrice, Part 2: A 6-month plaque/gingivitis clinical study, northeast USA. Compend Contin Educ Dent. 1997 Winter;18 Spec No:10-5.
  35. Williams C, McBride S, Bolden TE, et al. Clinical efficacy of an optimized stannous fluoride dentifrice, Part 3: A 6-month plaque/gingivitis clinical study, southeast USA. Compend Contin Educ Dent. 1997 Winter;18 Spec No:16-20.
  36. Gerlach RW, Hyde JD, Poore CL, et al. Breath effects of three marketed dentifrices: a comparative study evaluating single and cumulative use. J Clin Dent. 1998;9(4):83-8.
  37. Miller S, Truong T, Heu R, et al. Recent advances in stannous fluoride technology: antibacterial efficacy and mechanism of action towards hypersensitivity. Int Dent J. 1994 Feb;44(1 Suppl 1):83-98.
  38. Thrash WJ, Dodds MW, Jones DL. The effect of stannous fluoride on dentinal hypersensitivity. Int Dent J. 1994 Feb;44(1 Suppl 1):107-18.
  39. Seeman R, Conceicao MD, Filippi A, et al. Halitosis management by the general dental practitioner--results of an international consensus workshop. J Breath Res. 2014 Mar;8(1):017101. doi: 10.1088/1752-7155/8/1/017101. Epub 2014 Feb 24.
  40. Market Research Future. Halitosis Treatment Market Research Report - Global Forecast till 2023. Accessed January 17, 2019.
  41. Greenman J, Lenton P, Seemann R, et al. Organoleptic assessment of halitosis for dental professionals--general recommendations. J Breath Res. 2014 Mar;8(1):017102. doi: 10.1088/1752-7155/8/1/017102. Epub 2014 Feb 24.
  42. Phillips KA, Menard W. Olfactory reference syndrome: demographic and clinical features of imagined body odor. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2011 Jul-Aug;33(4):398-406. doi: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2011.04.004. Epub 2011 May 26.
  43. Pryse-Phillips W. An olfactory reference syndrome. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1971;47(4):484-509.

Additional Resources

  • No Additional Resources Available