Data from epidemiology studies demonstrates that hyperglycemia is associated with increased risks in the incidence and progression of microvascular and macrovascular complications. Adults with diabetes have a two to four times higher incidence of heart disease and stroke than adults without diabetes. Diabetes leads as the primary cause of blindness in adults 20-74,4 as well as the leading cause of kidney failure,12 while approximately 60-70% of diabetics have mild to severe nervous system disease.13 Additionally, diabetes is implicated in pregnancy complications, amputations, and nearly one-third of diabetics have severe periodontal disease.22,23,26-28 Diabetics also experience biochemical imbalances such as diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS), which are life threatening events.4 Ketones are one of two byproducts of fat metabolism, which build up in the body when glucose is not available as a fuel source due to insulin deficiencies; acid is another. DKA can occur when type 1 diabetics miss dose(s) of insulin, and HHS occurs more commonly in type 2 diabetics from very high blood glucose levels causing fluid imbalances that lead to systemic dehydration.29,30
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