1. National Institutes of Health (NIH). Diagnosis of Diabetes: National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse. Publication No. 09-4642. October 2008. Accessed October 11, 2018.
  2. American Diabetes Association. Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2005 Jan;28 Suppl 1:S37-42.
  3. American Diabetes Association. Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2006 Jan;29 Suppl 1:S43-8.
  4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). National Diabetes Fact Sheet. United States, 2005.
  5. Rao SS, Disraeli P, McGregor T. Impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glucose. Am Fam Physician. 2004 Apr 15;69(8):1961-8.
  6. National Institutes of Health (NIH). Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP): National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse. Publication No. 09-5099. October 2008. Accessed October 11, 2018
  7. Knowler WC, Barrett-Connor E, Fowler SE, et al. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med. 2002 Feb 7;346(6):393-403.
  8. Chiasson JL, Gomis R, Hanefeld M, et al. The STOP-NIDDM Trial: an international study on the efficacy of an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor to prevent type 2 diabetes in a population with impaired glucose tolerance: rationale, design, and preliminary screening data. Study to Prevent Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Care. 1998 Oct;21(10):1720-5.
  9. Karasik A. First International Congress on Prediabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Berlin. April 2005.
  10. The Merck Manual Online Medical Library. Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders: Diabetes Mellitus (DM). Accessed October 11, 2018.
  11. Fong DS, Aiello L, Gardner TW, et al. Diabetic retinopathy. Diabetes Care. 2003 Jan;26 Suppl 1:S99-S102.
  12. Molitch ME, DeFronzo RA, Franz MJ, et al. Nephropathy in diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2004 Jan;27 Suppl 1:S79-83.
  13. Vileikyte L, Leventhal H, Gonzalez JS, et al. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy and depressive symptoms: the association revisited. Diabetes Care. 2005 Oct;28(10):2378-83.
  14. National Institutes of Health (NIH). If you have diabetes… know your blood sugar numbers! NIH Publication No. 98-4350. Revised July 2005.
  15. Adler AI, Stratton IM, Neil HA, et al. Association of systolic blood pressure with macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 36): prospective observational study. BMJ. 2000 Aug 12;321(7258):412-9.
  16. Troy DB, Beringer P. Remington. The Science and Practice of Pharmacy. “Prevention of Long-Term Complications.” Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005. Edition 21:2234.
  17. Barter P, Gotto AM, LaRosa JC, et al. HDL cholesterol, very low levels of LDL cholesterol, and cardiovascular events. N Engl J Med. 2007 Sep 27;357(13):1301-10.
  18. Bakris G. Clinical trials report. Proteinuria and blood pressure reduction: are they of equal importance to preserve kidney function? Curr Hypertens Rep. 2005 Oct;7(5):357-8.
  19. Toto RD. Lessons from the African-American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension: an update. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2006 Oct;8(5):409-12.
  20. The Merck Manual Online Medical Library. Kidney and Urinary Tract Disorders: Chronic Kidney Failure. Accessed October 11, 2018.
  21. Fored CM, Ejerblad E, Lindblad P, et al. Acetaminophen, aspirin, and chronic renal failure. N Engl J Med. 2001 Dec 20;345(25):1801-8.
  22. Bild DE, Selby JV, Sinnock P, et al. Lower-extremity amputation in people with diabetes. Epidemiology and prevention. Diabetes Care. 1989 Jan;12(1):24-31.
  23. King LB. Impact of a preventive program on amputation rates in the diabetic population. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2008 Sep-Oct;35(5):479-82.
  24. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Self-reported prediabetes and risk-reduction activities--United States, 2006. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2008 Nov 7;57(44):1203-5.
  25. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), 1997 - March 2008. Accessed October 11, 2018.
  26. Mealey BL. Periodontal disease and diabetes. A two-way street. J Am Dent Assoc. 2006 Oct;137 Suppl:26S-31S.
  27. Caton JG, Quiñones CR. Etiology of periodontal diseases. Curr Opin Dent. 1991 Feb;1(1):17-28.
  28. Grossi SG, Zambon JJ, Ho AW, et al. Assessment of risk for periodontal disease. I. Risk indicators for attachment loss. J Periodontol. 1994 Mar;65(3):260-7.
  29. Rucker DW. Diabetic Ketoacidosis. emedicine/ Accessed October 11, 2018.
  30. Sergot PB, Nelson LS. Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State. emedicine/ Accessed October 11, 2018.
  31. Nichols JH. Point-of-care testing: performance improvement and evidence-based outcomes. Informa Health Care, 2003:ISBN 0824708687, 9780824708689:239-240.
  32. Parkin CG, Brooks N. Is post-prandial Glucose Control Important? Is it Practical In Primary Care Settings? Clin Diabetes 2002;20(2):71-76. Accessed October 11, 2018.
  33. Turgeon ML. Clinical hematology: theory and procedures. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2004:ISBN 0781750075, 9780781750073:81-83.
  34. American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes—2008. Diabetes Care. 2008 Jan;31 Suppl 1:S12-54.
  35. American Diabetes Association, Bantle JP, Wylie-Rosett J, Albright AL, et al. Nutrition recommendations and interventions for diabetes: a position statement of the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care. 2008 Jan;31 Suppl 1:S61-78.
  36. Dabelea D, Klingensmith GJ. Epidemiology of pediatric and adolescent diabetes. Informa Health Care, 2008;280.
  37. Willett W, Manson J, Liu S. Glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Jul;76(1):274S-80S.
  38. [No authors listed] Parameter on periodontitis associated with systemic conditions. American Academy of Periodontology. J Periodontol. 2000 May;71(5 Suppl):876-9.
  39. [No authors listed] Parameter on comprehensive periodontal examination. American Academy of Periodontology. J Periodontol. 2000 May;71(5 Suppl):847-8.
  40. Preshaw PM. Diabetes and periodontal disease. Int Dent J 2008;58(Suppl):S237-S243.
  41. Douglass CW. Risk assessment and management of periodontal disease. J Am Dent Assoc. 2006 Nov;137 Suppl:27S-32S.
  42. Lamster IB. Antimicrobial mouthrinses and the management of periodontal diseases. Introduction to the supplement. J Am Dent Assoc. 2006 Nov;137 Suppl:5S-9S.
  43. Lalla RV, D'Ambrosio JA. Dental management considerations for the patient with diabetes mellitus. J Am Dent Assoc. 2001 Oct;132(10):1425-32.
  44. Mealey BL, Oates TW. Diabetes mellitus and periodontal diseases. J Periodontol. 2006 Aug;77(8):1289-303.
  45. Löe H. Periodontal disease. The sixth complication of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 1993 Jan;16(1):329-34.
  46. Nishimura F, Takahashi K, Kurihara M, et al. Periodontal disease as a complication of diabetes mellitus. Ann Periodontol. 1998 Jul;3(1):20-9.
  47. Li X, Kolltveit KM, Tronstad L, et al. Systemic diseases caused by oral infection. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2000 Oct;13(4):547-58.
  48. Guynup S. Oral and Whole Body Health: Our Mouths, Ourselves. Sci Amer 2006:3-5. Accessed October 11, 2018.
  49. Ross PE. Oral and Whole Body Health: Invaders and the Body’s Defenses. Sci Amer 2006:6-11. Accessed July 17, 2015.
  50. Diaz-Romero RM, Ovadia R. Diabetes and periodontal disease: a bidirectional relationship. Med Biol 2007;14(1):6-9. Accessed October 11, 2018.
  51. Janket SJ, Wightman A, Baird AE, et al. Does periodontal treatment improve glycemic control in diabetic patients? A meta-analysis of intervention studies. J Dent Res. 2005 Dec;84(12):1154-9.
  52. Tervonen T, Karjalainen K. Periodontal disease related to diabetic status. A pilot study of the response to periodontal therapy in type 1 diabetes. J Clin Periodontol. 1997 Jul;24(7):505-10.
  53. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). National Diabetes Fact Sheet. United States, 2011. Accessed October 11, 2018.
  54. Weir GC, Nathan DM, Singer DE. Standards of care for diabetes. Diabetes Care. 1994 Dec;17(12):1514-22.
  55. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Diabetes Statistics Report: Estimates of Diabetes and Its Burden in the United States, 2017, Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2017. Accessed October 11, 2018

Additional Resources

  • No Additional Resources Available