The labial mucosa is examined using direct vision by averting the tissues over the fingers or thumbs (Figures 37 and 38) followed by bidigital palpation of the tissues of the lips.
Move the tissues from side to side and visualize the frena. Normal lip tissues are a homogenous deep pink color which changes gradually to a deep red color with more prominent vascularity near the mucolabial vestibule. The tissues should be moist and have uniform consistency and thickness when palpated (Figure 39).
Sclerotic minor salivary glands are common atypical findings as are Fordyce’s granules. Pathologic findings include the following:
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