Dentin is a hard, light yellow, porous layer of tissue directly underneath enamel and cementum. Dentin constitutes the largest portion of the tooth and consists of approximately 70% inorganic matter and 30% organic matter and water. Its organic matter is calcium and phosphate ions that form hydroxyapatite crystals as in enamel, but the crystals are 30 times smaller, making dentin somewhat softer than enamel.4

Unlike enamel, dentin is living tissue with the ability for constant growth and repair. This is made possible by the presence of odontoblasts, which are cells on the outer layer of the pulp whose biological function is the creation of new dentin. Tiny dentinal tubules that run between the cementoenamel junction (the interface of crown enamel and the tooth root cementum) and the pulp layer beneath it assist in this regeneration process. Odontoblast processes in the pulp layer reach into the tubules, creating new dentin and mineralizing it. Nerves also pass through these dentinal tubules allowing dentin to transmit pain, unlike enamel.4