affirm – To validate, confirm, or state positively the patient’s interests or efforts.

change talk – The patient’s expressions of desire, reason, ability or need to make a change in oral health behaviors.

collaborative – The clinician and patient working jointly to identify and achieve behavior change.

develop discrepancy – The clinician uncovers any perceived inconsistencies among the patient’s health status, behaviors and values, to create an internal tension and provide a rationale for change.

elicit-provide-elicit – An approach the clinician uses to ask, listen and inform that encourages patients to talk about and hear their intrinsic motivation for change.

express empathy – The clinician asks questions and actively listens to patient’s responses to indicate understanding and sensitivity to patient’s desires and feelings.

open-ended questions – Questions requiring more than a yes/no or short-answer response.

patient-centered – An approach that focuses on the patient’s needs, desires and internal motivations rather than the clinician’s goals.

reflective listening – The clinician reflects back what he/she percieves the patient has communicated.

rolling with resistance – The clinician acknowledges the patient’s resistance to change rather than continuing to push forward.

self-efficacy/autonomy – The patient’s self-directing ownership of behavior change.

summarize – The clinician recaps what the patient has said.