While rare in adults, young children are more likely to experience toxic reactions because of their lower weight and inadequate growth and development. Most adverse drug reactions occur within 5-10 minutes of injection without vasoconstrictor and around 30 minutes for local anesthetics with vasoconstrictor.15 Local anesthetic toxicity is caused by high blood levels of anesthetic because of:
The signs and symptoms of local anesthetic toxicity are biphasic; initial excitation, followed by depression. During the initial excitation stage, there is CNS stimulation of the heart rate and blood pressure increases. As blood plasma levels of the anesthetic increase, vasodilatation occurs followed by depression of the myocardium with subsequent fall in blood pressure. Bradycardia and cardiac arrest may follow.
Early subjective symptoms of the central nervous system include dizziness, anxiety and confusion and may be followed by diplopia, tinnitus, drowsiness and circumoral numbness or tingling.
Objective signs include muscle twitching, tremors, excessive talking, slowed speech and shivering followed by overt seizure activity. Unconsciousness and respiratory arrest may occur.
Local anesthetic toxicity is preventable by following proper injection technique, i.e., aspiration during slow injection to detect intravascular injection. Amongst all intraoral injections, the most positive aspirations were recorded for inferior alveolar nerve block (11.7%), followed by mental nerve block (5.7%).16 Clinicians should be knowledgeable of maximum dosages based on weight (Table 3).
|Anesthetic||Max Dosage mg/kg||Max Dosage mg/lb||Maximum total dosage||Mg anesthetic/1.7ml cartridge||Mg of vasoconstrictor /1.7ml cartridge|
|Lidocaine 2% 1:100,000 epi||4.4||2.0||300 mg||34 mg||0.034 mg|
|Mepivicaine 2% 1:20000 levonordefrin||4.4||2.0||300 mg||51 mg||0.085 mg|
|Articaine 4% 1:100,000 epi||7.0||3.2||500 mg||68 mg||0.017mg|
|Prilocaine 4% plain||6.0||2.7||400 mg||68 mg||-|
|Bupivicaine 0.5% 1:200,000 epi||1.3||0.6||90 mg||8.5 mg||0.0085 mg|
If lidocaine topical anesthetic is used, it should be factored into the total administered dose of lidocaine as it can infiltrate into the vascular system. After injection, the patient should be observed for any possible toxic response as early recognition and intervention is the key to a successful outcome.
Should a patient experience local anesthetic toxicity, the following steps should be taken: