Binders, also referred to as thickeners, provide texture and determine how “thick” or “runny” the dentifrice is. Binders are used for cohesiveness, to provide body, and to prevent ingredients from separating. Xanthan gum, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) carbomers, carrageenan, and synthetic cellulose are all commonly used dentifrice binders. Binders are usually large polymeric polar molecules that form strong interactions with water. These interactions change the consistency and flowability of the dentifrice. Without the binder, the toothpaste would separate into different phases, a liquid portion and a solid-like portion, and would have to be stirred before each use.
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