Saliva plays a critical role in health and disease. Its components bestow a broad range of benefits that can be categorized either as protective or as food- and speech-related functions. In addition, saliva is an ideal fluid for the diagnosis of a range of local and systemic conditions. This course provides a comprehensive look into the wonders of a body fluid we often take for granted and proposes diagnostic, preventive, and therapeutic strategies to deal with the consequences of hyposalivation.