The placebo effect of analgesics and its magnitude can be modulated pharmacologically by naloxone (an opioid-receptor antagonist) and psychologically by hidden injections.56 The clinician’s positive attitude toward an analgesic also affects the patient’s expectations and associated neurobiological changes can result in enhanced analgesia and lead to a reduction in drug intake with maintenance of clinical effect.56 Consequently, the placebo effect can be harnessed to the patient’s advantage.
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