There are no “absolutely” safe biologically active therapeutic agents, i.e., drugs seldom exert their beneficial effects without also causing adverse drug reactions (ADRs). It is axiomatic that analgesics, like other therapeutic agents, even after the administration of a single dose, may produce ADRs. However, there is also supporting evidence that analgesic-related ADRs are more likely to be associated with prolonged use, high doses, the presence of comorbidities, and polypharmacy.
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