Cardiovascular Effects

Signs and symptoms of depressed cardiovascular function may be the direct effect of LAs, which depress cardiac conduction, excitability, and contractility.14,19-25,27-32 Premonitory signs of reduced cardiac output include sweating, faintness, and altered mentation; followed by bradycardia, hypotension, progressive cerebral hypoxia, and seizures. Depressed cardiac conduction, excitability, and contractility may progress to ventricular arrhythmias, atrioventricular block, and cardiac arrest.