CNS Effects

CNS effects of LAs may be excitatory and/or depressant in nature.14,19-25,27-32 Excitatory effects may be brief and include lightheadedness, restlessness, nervousness, anxiety, apprehension, euphoria, confusion, dizziness, tinnitus, blurred or double vision; twitching, tremors, and rarely convulsions. Depressant effects include drowsiness progressing to unconsciousness, to respiratory depression, and finally, respiratory arrest. Other CNS effects may include nausea, vomiting, chills, and miosis.