Allergic reactions to LAs may manifest as pruritus, erythema, rash, urticaria, angioedema, wheezing, asthma (coughing, difficulty breathing); and, rarely, anaphylaxis.14,19-25,28,29,52-55 Allergic reactions to ester-type LAs have been confirmed. Ester-type anesthetic agents are metabolized by plasma cholinesterases. One of the breakdown products, para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) is a highly antigenic compound capable of sensitizing lymphocytes or eliciting the formation of IgE antibodies.
True allergy to amide-type LAs is rare.14,19-25,28,29,52-55 Patients allergic to ester-type LAs have not shown cross sensitivity to amide-type LAs and cross sensitivity among members of the amide-type LAs has not been reported. However, LAs formulated with a vasoconstrictor contain metabisulfite may precipitate an allergic reaction.21-25,56,57 The prevalence of sulfite allergy in the general population is unknown, but sulfite sensitivity is seen more frequently is patients with asthma.
Your session is about to expire. Do you want to continue logged in?
WARNING! You did not finish creating your certificate. Please click CONTINUE below to return to your previous page to complete the process. Failure to complete ALL the steps will result in a loss of this test score, and you will not receive credit for this course.