The pharmacological properties of LAs vary from agent to agent. To compensate for these differences, manufactures have adjusted the concentration of various LAs such that they all produce nearly the same effect. Consequently, the LA selected in a given clinical situation and the dosage administered should be predicated on potential toxic and other ADEs. Lidocaine 2% w/epinephrine 1:100,000 is the gold standard, in available formulations it is as effective as and less toxic than other agents.