acetylcholine – A neurotransmitter.
akinesia – Inability to initiate voluntary and involuntary movements.
basal ganglia – A deep part of the brain.
bradykinesia – Slow movement.
dopamine – The primary chemical neurotransmitter of the basal ganglia.
dysarthria – Impaired vocalization.
dyskinesias – Abnormal involuntary movements.
dysphagia – Trouble swallowing.
dystonia – Tightness, spasm, or cramping of muscles.
festination – Slow, small, shuffling steps.
freezing – Inability to move or getting “stuck” as with the feet appearing to be glued to the floor.
gait – The manner in which a person walks.
hypomima – A reduction in the movements of small face muscles; masked-like expression.
Lewy body – A round inclusion seen in the dopamine producing nerve cells of substantia nigra which indicates a damaged or dying cell.
masked-like face – A face lacking expression.
micrographic – Very small handwriting.
motor symptoms – Difficulty walking and talking.
non-motor symptoms – Orthostatic hypotension, cardiac dysrhythmias, difficulty completing simple tasks, loss of bladder control, constipation and fatigue.
neuropsychiatric symptoms – Dementia, anxiety, depression, and mental/behavioral changes.
pallalia – Stuttering or stammering speech.
parkinsonian gait – A tendency to lean forward, develop stooped posture, take small quick steps, and no longer swing the arms when walking.
rigidity – A tightness of increase in muscle tone at rest or throughout the entire range of motion.
sialorrhea – Excessive salivation, drooling.
striatum – A part of the basal ganglia circuit that contains dopamine receptors and receives signals from the substantia nigra.
substantia nigra – A part of the brain stem that produces dopamine.
tremor – Rhythmic shaking.