Anatomy in the Healthy Periodontal State

Anatomy in Health

The alveolar process is the portion of the mandible and the maxilla that supports the teeth. Tooth attachment is attained by the alveolar bone, the root cementum and the periodontal membrane. Compact bone lines the alveolus, or tooth socket, and is seen radiographically as the lamina dura. Cancellous bone, containing bone trabeculae, is found between the tooth sockets.

Alveolar bone is not a static structure; it constantly remodels through the action of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Alveolar bone remodels in response to local factors such as directional forces, host response to microbial plaque and infection. It is also affected by systemic factors such as hormones, glucocorticoids and various disease states.