Physical examination is also part of risk assessment.15,16 The general appearance of the patient provides invaluable clues regarding his/her overall health status. Cyanosis, pallor, diaphoresis, shortness of breath, tightness and/or pain in the chest with minimal activity, tremor, anxiety, and peripheral edema are signs and symptoms of underlying systemic disease. Critically, the physical examination must also include a determination of the patient’s vital signs (Table 5).
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