References

  1. Suvan J, D'Aiuto F, Moles DR, et al. Association between overweight/obesity and periodontitis in adults. A systematic review. Obes Rev. 2011 May;12(5):e381-404. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2010.00808.x. Epub 2011 Feb 23.
  2. Ylöstalo P, Suominen-Taipale L, Reunanen A, et al. Association between body weight and periodontal infection. J Clin Periodontol. 2008 Apr;35(4):297-304. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-051X.2008.01203.x. Epub 2008 Feb 15.
  3. Kraus D, Winter J, Jepsen S, et al. Interactions of adiponectin and lipopolysaccharide from Porphyromonas gingivalis on human oral epithelial cells. PLoS One. 2012;7(2):e30716. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0030716. Epub 2012 Feb 2.
  4. Bandaru P, Rajkumar H, Nappanveettil G. The Impact of Obesity on Immune Response to Infection and Vaccine: An Insight into Plausible Mechanisms. Endocrinol Metab Synd 2:113. doi: 10.4172/2161-1017.1000113. Accessed November 29, 2016.
  5. Huttunen R, Syrjänen J. Obesity and the risk and outcome of infection. Int J Obes (Lond). 2013 Mar;37(3):333-40. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2012.62. Epub 2012 May 1.
  6. Tanaka S, Isoda F, Ishihara Y, et al. T lymphopaenia in relation to body mass index and TNF-alpha in human obesity: adequate weight reduction can be corrective. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2001 Mar;54(3):347-54.
  7. O'Rourke RW, Kay T, Scholz MH, et al. Alterations in T-cell subset frequency in peripheral blood in obesity. Obes Surg. 2005 Nov-Dec;15(10):1463-8. doi: 10.1381/096089205774859308
  8. Olsen I. From the Acta Prize Lecture 2014: the periodontal-systemic connection seen from a microbiological standpoint. Acta Odontol Scand. 2015;73(8):563-8. doi: 10.3109/00016357.2015.1007480. Epub 2015 Apr 20.
  9. WHO. Obesity and overweight. Fact sheet 311. Updated June 2016. Accessed November 29, 2016.
  10. Pollack A. A.M.A. Recognizes Obesity as a Disease. New York Times. June 18, 2013: B1: Print. Accessed November 29, 2016.
  11. Aronne LJ, Segal KR. Adiposity and fat distribution outcome measures: assessment and clinical implications. Obes Res. 2002 Nov;10 Suppl 1:14S-21S. doi: 10.1038/oby.2002.184.
  12. Bray GA. Obesity is a chronic, relapsing neurochemical disease. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004 Jan;28(1):34-8. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(06)70523-0.
  13. Falagas ME, Kompoti M. Obesity and infection. Lancet Infect Dis. 2006 Jul;6(7):438-46.
  14. Kopelman P. Health risks associated with overweight and obesity. Obes Rev. 2007 Mar;8 Suppl 1:13-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2007.00311.x.
  15. Flemmig TF. Periodontitis. Ann Periodontol. 1999 Dec;4(1):32-8. doi: 10.1902/annals.1999.4.1.32.
  16. Page RC, Schroeder HE. Pathogenesis of inflammatory periodontal disease. A summary of current work. Lab Invest. 1976 Mar;34(3):235-49.
  17. Linden GJ, Lyons A, Scannapieco FA. Periodontal systemic associations: review of the evidence. J Periodontol. 2013 Apr;84(4 Suppl):S8-S19. doi: 10.1902/jop.2013.1340010.
  18. Eke PI, Dye BA, Wei L, et al. Prevalence of periodontitis in adults in the United States: 2009 and 2010. J Dent Res. 2012 Oct;91(10):914-20. Epub 2012 Aug 30. doi: 10.1177/0022034512457373.
  19. WHO. The World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life. Accessed November 29, 2016.
  20. CDC. Overweight and Obesity. Data & Statistics. Adult Obesity Facts. Accessed November 29, 2016.
  21. Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, et al. Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States, 2011-2012. JAMA. 2014 Feb 26;311(8):806-14. doi: 10.1001/jama.2014.732.
  22. Ogden CL, Lamb MM, Carroll MD, et al. Obesity and socioeconomic status in adults: United States, 2005-2008. NCHS Data Brief. 2010 Dec;(50):1-8.
  23. Löe H, Anerud A, Boysen H, et al. Natural history of periodontal disease in man. Rapid, moderate and no loss of attachment in Sri Lankan laborers 14 to 46 years of age. J Clin Periodontol. 1986 May;13(5):431-45.
  24. Socransky SS, Haffajee AD, Goodson JM, et al. New concepts of destructive periodontal disease. J Clin Periodontol. 1984 Jan;11(1):21-32.
  25. Jeffcoat MK, Reddy MS. Progression of probing attachment loss in adult periodontitis. J Periodontol. 1991 Mar;62(3):185-9. doi: 10.1902/jop.1991.62.3.185.
  26. Armitage GC. Development of a classification system for periodontal diseases and conditions. Ann Periodontol. 1999 Dec;4(1):1-6. doi: 10.1902/annals.1999.4.1.1.
  27. American Academy of Periodontology Task Force Report on the Update to the 1999 Classification of Periodontal Diseases and Conditions. J Periodontol. 2015 Jul;86(7):835-8. doi: 10.1902/jop.2015.157001. Epub 2015 May 27.
  28. Eke PI, Dye BA, Wei L, et al. Prevalence of periodontitis in adults in the United States: 2009 and 2010. J Dent Res. 2012 Oct;91(10):914-20. Epub 2012 Aug 30. doi: 10.1177/0022034512457373.
  29. Eke PI, Dye BA, Wei L, et al. Update on Prevalence of Periodontitis in Adults in the United States: NHANES 2009 to 2012. J Periodontol. 2015 May;86(5):611-22. doi: 10.1902/jop.2015.140520. Epub 2015 Feb 17.
  30. Eke PI, Wei L, Thornton-Evans GO, et al. Risk Indicators for Periodontitis in US Adults: NHANES 2009 to 2012. J Periodontol. 2016 Oct;87(10):1174-85. doi: 10.1902/jop.2016.160013. Epub 2016 Jul 1.
  31. Hirschfeld L, Wasserman B. A long-term survey of tooth loss in 600 treated periodontal patients. J Periodontol. 1978 May;49(5):225-37. doi: 10.1902/jop.1978.49.5.225.
  32. McFall WT Jr. Tooth loss in 100 treated patients with periodontal disease. A long-term study. J Periodontol. 1982 Sep;53(9):539-49. doi: 10.1902/jop.1982.53.9.539.
  33. Löe H, Anerud A, Boysen H, et al. The natural history of periodontal disease in man. The rate of periodontal destruction before 40 years of age. J Periodontol. 1978 Dec;49(12):607-20. doi: 10.1902/jop.1978.49.12.607.
  34. Michalowicz BS, Aeppli DP, Kuba RK, et al. A twin study of genetic variation in proportional radiographic alveolar bone height. J Dent Res. 1991 Nov;70(11):1431-5.
  35. Michalowicz BS, Aeppli D, Virag JG, et al. Periodontal findings in adult twins. J Periodontol. 1991 May;62(5):293-9.
  36. Alley CS, Reinhardt RA, Maze CA, et al. HLA-D and T lymphocyte reactivity to specific periodontal pathogens in type 1 diabetic periodontitis. J Periodontol. 1993 Oct;64(10):974-9. doi: 10.1902/jop.1993.64.10.974.
  37. Bergström J, Preber H. Tobacco use as a risk factor. J Periodontol. 1994 May;65(5 Suppl):545-50. doi: 10.1902/jop.1994.65.5s.545.
  38. Hart TC, Shapira L, Van Dyke TE. Neutrophil defects as risk factors for periodontal diseases. J Periodontol. 1994 May;65(5 Suppl):521-9. doi: 10.1902/jop.1994.65.5s.521.
  39. Kornman KS, Crane A, Wang HY, et al. The interleukin-1 genotype as a severity factor in adult periodontal disease. J Clin Periodontol. 1997 Jan;24(1):72-7.
  40. Saito T, Shimazaki Y, Koga T, et al. Relationship between upper body obesity and periodontitis. J Dent Res. 2001 Jul;80(7):1631-6.
  41. Al-Zahrani MS, Bissada NF, Borawskit EA. Obesity and periodontal disease in young, middle-aged, and older adults. J Periodontol. 2003 May;74(5):610-5. doi: 10.1902/jop.2003.74.5.610.
  42. Linden G, Patterson C, Evans A, et al. Obesity and periodontitis in 60-70-year-old men. J Clin Periodontol. 2007 Jun;34(6):461-6. Epub 2007 Apr 2. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-051X.2007.01075.x.
  43. Chaffee BW, Weston SJ. Association between chronic periodontal disease and obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Periodontol. 2010 Dec;81(12):1708-24. doi: 10.1902/jop.2010.100321. Epub 2010 Aug 19.
  44. Gorman A, Kaye EK, Apovian C, et al. Overweight and obesity predict time to periodontal disease progression in men. J Clin Periodontol. 2012 Feb;39(2):107-14. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-051X.2011.01824.x. Epub 2011 Dec 12.
  45. Al-Zahrani MS, Bissada NF, Borawskit EA. Obesity and periodontal disease in young, middle-aged, and older adults. J Periodontol. 2003 May;74(5):610-5. doi: 10.1902/jop.2003.74.5.610.
  46. Alabdulkarim M, Bissada N, Al-Zahrani M, et al. Alveolar bone loss in obese subjects. J Int Acad Periodontol. 2005 Apr;7(2):34-8.
  47. López NJ, Quintero A, Casanova PA, et al. Effects of periodontal therapy on systemic markers of inflammation in patients with metabolic syndrome: a controlled clinical trial. J Periodontol. 2012 Mar;83(3):267-78. doi: 10.1902/jop.2011.110227. Epub 2011 Jul 12.
  48. Bezera BB, Sallum EA, Sallum AW. Obesity and periodontal disease: Why suggest such relationship? An overview. Braz J Oral Sci. 2007;6:1420–1422.
  49. Boesing F, Patiño JS, da Silva VR, et al. The interface between obesity and periodontitis with emphasis on oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Obes Rev. 2009 May;10(3):290-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2008.00555.x. Epub 2009 Jan 16.
  50. Bullon P, Morillo JM, Ramirez-Tortosa MC, et al. Metabolic syndrome and periodontitis: is oxidative stress a common link? J Dent Res. 2009 Jun;88(6):503-18. doi: 10.1177/0022034509337479.
  51. Cullinan MP1, Ford PJ, Seymour GJ. Periodontal disease and systemic health: current status. Aust Dent J. 2009 Sep;54 Suppl 1:S62-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1834-7819.2009.01144.x.
  52. Pischon N, Heng N, Bernimoulin JP, et al. Obesity, inflammation, and periodontal disease. J Dent Res. 2007 May;86(5):400-9.
  53. Ritchie CS. Obesity and periodontal disease. Periodontol 2000. 2007;44:154-63. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0757.2007.00207.x.
  54. Saito T, Shimazaki Y. Metabolic disorders related to obesity and periodontal disease. Periodontol 2000. 2007;43:254-66. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0757.2006.00186.x.
  55. Saito T, Shimazaki Y, Kiyohara Y, et al. Relationship between obesity, glucose tolerance, and periodontal disease in Japanese women: the Hisayama study. J Periodontal Res. 2005 Aug;40(4):346-53. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0765.2005.00813.x.
  56. Genco RJ, Grossi SG, Ho A, et al. A proposed model linking inflammation to obesity, diabetes, and periodontal infections. J Periodontol. 2005 Nov;76(11 Suppl):2075-84. doi: 10.1902/jop.2005.76.11-S.2075.
  57. Yudkin JS, Kumari M, Humphries SE, et al. Inflammation, obesity, stress and coronary heart disease: is interleukin-6 the link? Atherosclerosis. 2000 Feb;148(2):209-14.
  58. Hotamisligil GS. Molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance and the role of the adipocyte. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2000 Nov;24 Suppl 4:S23-7.
  59. Rotter V, Nagaev I, Smith U. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) induces insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and is, like IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, overexpressed in human fat cells from insulin-resistant subjects. J Biol Chem. 2003 Nov 14;278(46):45777-84. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M301977200. Epub 2003 Sep 2.
  60. Hotamisligil GS. The role of TNFalpha and TNF receptors in obesity and insulin resistance. J Intern Med. 1999 Jun;245(6):621-5.
  61. Kern PA, Ranganathan S, Li C, et al. Adipose tissue tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-6 expression in human obesity and insulin resistance. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2001 May;280(5):E745-51.
  62. Offenbacher S.Periodontal diseases: pathogenesis. Ann Periodontol. 1996 Nov;1(1):821-78. doi: 10.1902/annals.1996.1.1.821.
  63. Beck J, Garcia R, Heiss G, et al. Periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease. J Periodontol. 1996 Oct;67(10 Suppl):1123-37. doi: 10.1902/jop.1996.67.10s.1123.
  64. Hajishengallis G. Periodontitis: from microbial immune subversion to systemic inflammation. Nat Rev Immunol. 2015 Jan;15(1):30-44. doi: 10.1038/nri3785.
  65. Grossi SG, Genco RJ. Periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus: a two-way relationship. Ann Periodontol. 1998 Jul;3(1):51-61. doi: 10.1902/annals.1998.3.1.51.
  66. Beck JD, Offenbacher S, Williams R, et al. Periodontitis: a risk factor for coronary heart disease? Ann Periodontol. 1998 Jul;3(1):127-41. doi: 10.1902/annals.1998.3.1.127.
  67. Loos BG, Hutter J, Varoufaki A, et al. Levels of C-reactive protein in periodontal patients and healthy controls (Abstract). J Dent Res June 1998; 77(2 suppl): 666. Accessed November 29, 2016.
  68. Nishimura F, Iwamoto Y, Mineshiba J, et al. Periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus: the role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in a 2-way relationship. J Periodontol. 2003 Jan;74(1):97-102. doi: 10.1902/jop.2003.74.1.97.
  69. Beck JD, Offenbacher S. Systemic effects of periodontitis: epidemiology of periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease. J Periodontol. 2005 Nov;76(11 Suppl):2089-100. doi: 10.1902/jop.2005.76.11-S.2089.
  70. Loos BG. Systemic markers of inflammation in periodontitis. J Periodontol. 2005 Nov;76(11 Suppl):2106-15. doi: 10.1902/jop.2005.76.11-S.2106.
  71. Mattila KJ, Pussinen PJ, Paju S. Dental infections and cardiovascular diseases: a review. J Periodontol. 2005 Nov;76(11 Suppl):2085-8. doi: 10.1902/jop.2005.76.11-S.2085.
  72. Offenbacher S, Beck JD, Moss K, et al. Results from the Periodontitis and Vascular Events (PAVE) Study: a pilot multicentered, randomized, controlled trial to study effects of periodontal therapy in a secondary prevention model of cardiovascular disease. J Periodontol. 2009 Feb;80(2):190-201. doi: 10.1902/jop.2009.080007.
  73. Slade GD, Ghezzi EM, Heiss G, et al. Relationship between periodontal disease and C-reactive protein among adults in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. Arch Intern Med. 2003 May 26;163(10):1172-9. doi: 10.1001/archinte.163.10.1172.
  74. Lin WY, Dubuisson O, Rubicz R, et al. Long-term changes in adiposity and glycemic control are associated with past adenovirus infection. Diabetes Care. 2013 Mar;36(3):701-7. doi: 10.2337/dc12-1089. Epub 2012 Nov 16.
  75. Flint HJ. Obesity and the gut microbiota. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2011 Nov;45 Suppl:S128-32. doi: 10.1097/MCG.0b013e31821f44c4.
  76. Turnbaugh PJ, Hamady M, Yatsunenko T, et al. A core gut microbiome in obese and lean twins. Nature. 2009 Jan 22;457(7228):480-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07540. Epub 2008 Nov 30.
  77. DiBaise JK, Zhang H, Crowell MD, et al. Gut microbiota and its possible relationship with obesity. Mayo Clin Proc. 2008 Apr;83(4):460-9. doi: 10.4065/83.4.460.
  78. Graessler J, Qin Y, Zhong H, et al. Metagenomic sequencing of the human gut microbiome before and after bariatric surgery in obese patients with type 2 diabetes: correlation with inflammatory and metabolic parameters. Pharmacogenomics J. 2013 Dec;13(6):514-22. doi: 10.1038/tpj.2012.43. Epub 2012 Oct 2.
  79. Li JV, Ashrafian H, Bueter M, et al. Metabolic surgery profoundly influences gut microbial-host metabolic cross-talk. Gut. 2011 Sep;60(9):1214-23. doi: 10.1136/gut.2010.234708. Epub 2011 May 14.
  80. Zhang H, DiBaise JK, Zuccolo A, et al. Human gut microbiota in obesity and after gastric bypass. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Feb 17;106(7):2365-70. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0812600106. Epub 2009 Jan 21.
  81. Bäckhed F, Ding H, Wang T, et al. The gut microbiota as an environmental factor that regulates fat storage. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Nov 2;101(44):15718-23. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0407076101. Epub 2004 Oct 25.
  82. Furet JP, Kong LC, Tap J, et al. Diabetes. Differential adaptation of human gut microbiota to bariatric surgery-induced weight loss: links with metabolic and low-grade inflammation markers. 2010 Dec;59(12):3049-57. doi: 10.2337/db10-0253. Epub 2010 Sep 28.
  83. Socransky SS, Haffajee AD. Periodontal microbial ecology. Periodontol 2000. 2005;38:135-87. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0757.2005.00107.x.
  84. Mizutani K, Park K, Mima A, et al. Obesity-associated Gingival Vascular Inflammation and Insulin Resistance. J Dent Res. 2014 Jun;93(6):596-601. doi: 10.1177/0022034514532102. Epub 2014 Apr 17.
  85. Socransky SS, Haffajee AD, Cugini MA, et al. Microbial complexes in subgingival plaque. J Clin Periodontol. 1998 Feb;25(2):134-44.
  86. Fine DH, Markowitz K, Fairlie K, et al. A consortium of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Streptococcus parasanguinis, and Filifactor alocis is present in sites prior to bone loss in a longitudinal study of localized aggressive periodontitis. J Clin Microbiol. 2013 Sep;51(9):2850-61. doi: 10.1128/JCM.00729-13. Epub 2013 Jun 19.
  87. Ge X, Rodriguez R, Trinh M, et al. Oral microbiome of deep and shallow dental pockets in chronic periodontitis. PLoS One. 2013 Jun 6;8(6):e65520. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0065520. Print 2013.
  88. Cugini MA, Haffajee AD, Smith C, et al. The effect of scaling and root planing on the clinical and microbiological parameters of periodontal diseases: 12-month results. J Clin Periodontol. 2000 Jan;27(1):30-6.
  89. Feres M, Cortelli SC, Figueiredo LC, et al. Microbiological basis for periodontal therapy. J Appl Oral Sci. 2004 Dec;12(4):256-66.
  90. Darveau RP, Tanner A, Page RC. The microbial challenge in periodontitis. Periodontol 2000. 1997 Jun;14:12-32.
  91. Sekirov I, Russell SL, Antunes LC, et al. Gut microbiota in health and disease. Physiol Rev. 2010 Jul;90(3):859-904. doi: 10.1152/physrev.00045.2009.
  92. Kinross JM, Darzi AW, Nicholson JK. Gut microbiome-host interactions in health and disease. Genome Med. 2011 Mar 4;3(3):14. doi: 10.1186/gm228.
  93. Rosalem W, Rescala B, Teles RP, et al. Effect of non-surgical treatment on chronic and aggressive periodontitis: clinical, immunologic, and microbiologic findings. J Periodontol. 2011 Jul;82(7):979-89. doi: 10.1902/jop.2011.100579. Epub 2011 Feb 10.
  94. Almaghlouth AA, Cionca N, Cancela JA, et al. Effect of periodontal treatment on peak serum levels of inflammatory markers. Clin Oral Investig. 2014 Dec;18(9):2113-21. doi: 10.1007/s00784-014-1187-4. Epub 2014 Jan 23.
  95. Giannopoulou C, Cionca N, Almaghlouth A, et al. Systemic Biomarkers in 2-Phase Antibiotic Periodontal Treatment: A Randomized Clinical Trial. J Dent Res. 2016 Mar;95(3):349-55. doi: 10.1177/0022034515618949. Epub 2015 Nov 24.
  96. Papageorgiou SN, Reichert C, Jäger A, et al. Effect of overweight/obesity on response to periodontal treatment: systematic review and a meta-analysis. J Clin Periodontol. 2015 Mar;42(3):247-61. doi: 10.1111/jcpe.12365. Epub 2015 Feb 20.
  97. Nascimento GG, Leite FR, Correa MB, et al. Does periodontal treatment have an effect on clinical and immunological parameters of periodontal disease in obese subjects? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Oral Investig. 2016 May;20(4):639-47. doi: 10.1007/s00784-015-1678-y. Epub 2015 Dec 1.
  98. Deschner J, Eick S, Damanaki A, et al. The role of adipokines in periodontal infection and healing. Mol Oral Microbiol. 2014 Dec;29(6):258-69. doi: 10.1111/omi.12070. Epub 2014 Sep 27.
  99. Duzagac E, Cifcibasi E, Erdem MG, et al. Is obesity associated with healing after non-surgical periodontal therapy? A local vs. systemic evaluation. J Periodontal Res. 2016 Oct;51(5):604-12. doi: 10.1111/jre.12340. Epub 2015 Dec 15.
  100. CDC. Overweight and Obesity. Data & Statistics. Data, Trends and Maps. Adult Obesity Prevalence Maps. Accessed November 29, 2016.
  101. American Academy of Periodontology. CDC: Half of American Adults Have Periodontal Disease. Accessed November 29, 2016.
  102. Bush ME, Hardy SL, Geisinger ML. Subjects with Chronic Periodontitis and Obesity Status. J Dent Res 95(Spec Iss A):0494, 2016 (www.iadr.org). Accessed November 29, 2016.
  103. Xu H, Barnes GT, Yang Q, et al. Chronic inflammation in fat plays a crucial role in the development of obesity-related insulin resistance. J Clin Invest. 2003 Dec;112(12):1821-30. doi: 10.1172/JCI19451.
  104. Goodson JM, Groppo D, Halem S, et al. Is obesity an oral bacterial disease? J Dent Res. 2009 Jun;88(6):519-23. doi: 10.1177/0022034509338353.

Additional Resources

  • No Additional Resources Available