Introduction

Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic syndromes characterized by a disordered metabolism and abnormally high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) resulting from low levels of the hormone insulin with or without insulin resistance.3 Approximately 29.1 million people in the United States (9.3%) are estimated to have diabetes with 21.0 million of those being diagnosed.4

Incidence of has more than doubled since 1998, when 800,000 new cases were diagnosed. By comparison, in 2012, 1.7 million new cases were diagnosed. Diabetes mellitus has been linked to poor oral health and nutritional habits, which have damatically increased over the past few decades.2,5,6

Periodontitis is initiated by infectious agents resulting in tissue destruction caused by host inflammation within the supporting structures of the teeth.7,8 It has been shown to have an association with numerous systemic conditions in a bidirectional manner.9 The inflammatory burden and immune cell dysfunction seen in both periodontitis and diabetes mellitus can alter treatment recommendations and therapeutic outcomes for patients with both periodontitis and diabetes mellitus.10 Due to the number of individuals affected by both periodontal disease11 and diabetes mellitus,4 the understanding of the interaction between periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus is of utmost importance to the dental practitioner.