1. Mealey BL, Ocampo GL. Diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease. Periodontol 2000. 2007;44:127-53. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0757.2006.00193.x.
  2. Mealey BL, Oates TW, American Academy of Periodontology. Diabetes mellitus and periodontal diseases. J Periodontol. 2006 Aug;77(8):1289-303. doi: 10.1902/jop.2006.050459.
  3. American Diabetes Association. Classification and diagnosis of diabetes. Sec. 2. In Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes—2015. Diabetes Care. 2015;38(Suppl. 1):S8–S16. Accessed March 28, 2017.
  4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Diabetes Statistics Report: Estimates of Diabetes and Its Burden in the United States, 2014. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services; 2014. Accessed March 28, 2017.
  5. Katagiri S, Nitta H, Nagasawa T, et al. Effect of glycemic control on periodontitis in type 2 diabetic patients with periodontal disease. J Diabetes Investig. 2013 May;4(3):320-325. Epub 2013 Feb 14. doi: 10.1111/jdi.12026.
  6. Eke PI, Thornton-Evans G, Dye B, et al. Advances in surveillance of periodontitis: the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention periodontal disease surveillance project. J Periodontol. 2012 Nov;83(11):1337-42. doi: 10.1902/jop.2012.110676. Epub 2012 Feb 11.
  7. Flemmig TF. Periodontitis. Ann Periodontol. 1999 Dec;4(1):32-8. doi: 10.1902/annals.1999.4.1.32.
  8. Page RC, Schroeder HE. Pathogenesis of inflammatory periodontal disease. A summary of current work. Lab Invest. 1976 Mar;34(3):235-49.
  9. Linden GJ, Lyons A, Scannapieco FA. Periodontal systemic associations: review of the evidence. J Clin Periodontol. 2013 Apr;40 Suppl 14:S8-19. doi: 10.1111/jcpe.12064.
  10. Taylor JJ, Preshaw PM, Lalla E. A review of the evidence for pathogenic mechanisms that may link periodontitis and diabetes. J Clin Periodontol. 2013 Apr;40 Suppl 14:S113-34. doi: 10.1111/jcpe.12059.
  11. Eke PI, Dye BA, Wei L, et al. Prevalence of periodontitis in adults in the United States: 2009 and 2010. J Dent Res. 2012 Oct;91(10):914-20. Epub 2012 Aug 30. doi: 10.1177/0022034512457373.
  12. Glucose tolerance and mortality: comparison of WHO and American Diabetes Association diagnostic criteria. The DECODE study group. European Diabetes Epidemiology Group. Diabetes Epidemiology: Collaborative analysis Of Diagnostic criteria in Europe. Lancet. 1999 Aug 21;354(9179):617-21.
  13. Kirwan JP, Varastehpour A, Jing M, et al. Reversal of insulin resistance postpartum is linked to enhanced skeletal muscle insulin signaling. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Sep;89(9):4678-84. doi: 10.1210/jc.2004-0749.
  14. American Diabetes Association. Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2014; 37(Suppl 1):S81-S90. Accessed March 28, 2017.
  15. The International Expert Committee. International Expert Committee Report on the Role of the A1C Assay in the Diagnosis of Diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2009 Jul; 32(7): 1327–1334. doi: 10.2337/dc09-9033
  16. Rohlfing CL, Wiedmeyer HM, Little RR, et al. Defining the relationship between plasma glucose and HbA(1c): analysis of glucose profiles and HbA(1c) in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial. Diabetes Care. 2002 Feb;25(2):275-8.
  17. Flemmig TF. Periodontitis. Ann Periodontol. 1999 Dec;4(1):32-8. doi: 10.1902/annals.1999.4.1.32.
  18. Page RC, Schroeder HE. Pathogenesis of inflammatory periodontal disease. A summary of current work. Lab Invest. 1976 Mar;34(3):235-49.
  19. Löe H, Anerud A, Boysen H, et al. Natural history of periodontal disease in man. Rapid, moderate and no loss of attachment in Sri Lankan laborers 14 to 46 years of age. J Clin Periodontol. 1986 May;13(5):431-45.
  20. Socransky SS, Haffajee AD, Goodson JM, et al. New concepts of destructive periodontal disease. J Clin Periodontol. 1984 Jan;11(1):21-32.
  21. Jeffcoat MK, Reddy MS. Progression of probing attachment loss in adult periodontitis. J Periodontol. 1991 Mar;62(3):185-9. doi: 10.1902/jop.1991.62.3.185.
  22. Armitage GC. Development of a classification system for periodontal diseases and conditions. Ann Periodontol. 1999 Dec;4(1):1-6. doi: 10.1902/annals.1999.4.1.1.
  23. American Academy of Periodontology Task Force Report on the Update to the 1999 Classification of Periodontal Diseases and Conditions. J Periodontol. 2015 Jul;86(7):835-8. doi: 10.1902/jop.2015.157001. Epub 2015 May 27.
  24. Eke PI, Dye BA, Wei L, et al. Prevalence of periodontitis in adults in the United States: 2009 and 2010. J Dent Res. 2012 Oct;91(10):914-20. Epub 2012 Aug 30. 10.1177/0022034512457373.
  25. Eke PI, Dye BA, Wei L, et al. Update on Prevalence of Periodontitis in Adults in the United States: NHANES 2009 to 2012. J Periodontol. 2015 May;86(5):611-22. doi: 10.1902/jop.2015.140520. Epub 2015 Feb 17.
  26. Eke PI, Wei L, Thornton-Evans GO, et al. Risk Indicators for Periodontitis in US Adults: NHANES 2009 to 2012. J Periodontol. 2016 Oct;87(10):1174-85. doi: 10.1902/jop.2016.160013. Epub 2016 Jul 1.
  27. Hirschfeld L, Wasserman B. A long-term survey of tooth loss in 600 treated periodontal patients. J Periodontol. 1978 May;49(5):225-37. doi: 10.1902/jop.1978.49.5.225.
  28. McFall WT Jr. Tooth loss in 100 treated patients with periodontal disease. A long-term study. J Periodontol. 1982 Sep;53(9):539-49. doi: 10.1902/jop.1982.53.9.539.
  29. Löe H, Anerud A, Boysen H, et al. The natural history of periodontal disease in man. The rate of periodontal destruction before 40 years of age. J Periodontol. 1978 Dec;49(12):607-20. doi: 10.1902/jop.1978.49.12.607.
  30. Michalowicz BS, Aeppli DP, Kuba RK, et al. A twin study of genetic variation in proportional radiographic alveolar bone height. J Dent Res. 1991 Nov;70(11):1431-5. doi: 10.1177/00220345910700110701.
  31. Michalowicz BS, Aeppli D, Virag JG, et al. Periodontal findings in adult twins. J Periodontol. 1991 May;62(5):293-9. doi: 10.1902/jop.1991.62.5.293.
  32. Alley CS, Reinhardt RA, Maze CA, et al. HLA-D and T lymphocyte reactivity to specific periodontal pathogens in type 1 diabetic periodontitis. J Periodontol. 1993 Oct;64(10):974-9. doi: 10.1902/jop.1993.64.10.974.
  33. Bergström J, Preber H. Tobacco use as a risk factor. J Periodontol. 1994 May;65(5 Suppl):545-50. doi: 10.1902/jop.1994.65.5s.545.
  34. Hart TC, Shapira L, Van Dyke TE. Neutrophil defects as risk factors for periodontal diseases. J Periodontol. 1994 May;65(5 Suppl):521-9. doi: 10.1902/jop.1994.65.5s.521.
  35. Kornman KS, Crane A, Wang HY, et al. The interleukin-1 genotype as a severity factor in adult periodontal disease. J Clin Periodontol. 1997 Jan;24(1):72-7.
  36. Papapanou PN. Periodontal diseases: epidemiology. Ann Periodontol. 1996 Nov;1(1):1-36. doi: 10.1902/annals.1996.1.1.1.
  37. Mealey BL, Moritz AJ. Hormonal influences: effects of diabetes mellitus and endogenous female sex steroid hormones on the periodontium. Periodontol 2000. 2003;32:59-81.
  38. Preshaw PM, Bissett SM. Periodontitis: oral complication of diabetes. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2013 Dec;42(4):849-67. doi: 10.1016/j.ecl.2013.05.012. Epub 2013 Sep 4.
  39. Cianciola LJ, Park BH, Bruck E, et al. Prevalence of periodontal disease in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (juvenile diabetes). J Am Dent Assoc. 1982 May;104(5):653-60.
  40. Bacić M, Plancak D, Granić M. CPITN assessment of periodontal disease in diabetic patients. J Periodontol. 1988 Dec;59(12):816-22. doi: 10.1902/jop.1988.59.12.816.
  41. Emrich LJ, Shlossman M, Genco RJ. Periodontal disease in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Periodontol. 1991 Feb;62(2):123-31. doi: 10.1902/jop.1991.62.2.123.
  42. Shlossman M, Knowler WC, Pettitt DJ, et al. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease. J Am Dent Assoc. 1990 Oct;121(4):532-6.
  43. Tervonen T, Oliver RC. Long-term control of diabetes mellitus and periodontitis. J Clin Periodontol. 1993 Jul;20(6):431-5.
  44. Cutler CW, Machen RL, Jotwani R, et al. Heightened gingival inflammation and attachment loss in type 2 diabetics with hyperlipidemia. J Periodontol. 1999 Nov;70(11):1313-21. doi: 10.1902/jop.1999.70.11.1313.
  45. Grossi SG, Genco RJ, Machtei EE, et al. Assessment of risk for periodontal disease. II. Risk indicators for alveolar bone loss. J Periodontol. 1995 Jan;66(1):23-9. doi: 10.1902/jop.1995.66.1.23.
  46. Tsai C, Hayes C, Taylor GW. Glycemic control of type 2 diabetes and severe periodontal disease in the US adult population. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2002 Jun;30(3):182-92.
  47. Safkan-Seppälä B, Ainamo J. Periodontal conditions in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Clin Periodontol. 1992 Jan;19(1):24-9.
  48. Löe H. Periodontal disease. The sixth complication of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 1993 Jan;16(1):329-34.
  49. Taylor GW, Burt BA, Becker MP, et al. Severe periodontitis and risk for poor glycemic control in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Periodontol. 1996 Oct;67(10 Suppl):1085-93. doi: 10.1902/jop.1996.67.10s.1085.
  50. Thorstensson H, Kuylenstierna J, Hugoson A. Medical status and complications in relation to periodontal disease experience in insulin-dependent diabetics. J Clin Periodontol. 1996 Mar;23(3 Pt 1):194-202.
  51. Saremi A, Nelson RG, Tulloch-Reid M, et al. Periodontal disease and mortality in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2005 Jan;28(1):27-32.
  52. Noack B, Genco RJ, Tevisan M, et al. Periodontal infections contribute to elevated C-reactive protein level. J Periodontol. 2001 Sep;72(9):1221-7. doi: 10.1902/jop.2000.72.9.1221.
  53. Loos BG, Craandijk J, Hoek FJ, et al. Elevation of systemic markers related to cardiovascular diseases in the peripheral blood of periodontitis patients. J Periodontol. 2000 Oct;71(10):1528-34. doi: 10.1902/jop.2000.71.10.1528.
  54. Wu T, Trevisan M, Genco RJ, et al. Examination of the relation between periodontal health status and cardiovascular risk factors: serum total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and plasma fibrinogen. Am J Epidemiol. 2000 Feb 1;151(3):273-82.
  55. Geerts SO, Nys M, De MP, et al. Systemic release of endotoxins induced by gentle mastication: association with periodontitis severity. J Periodontol. 2002 Jan;73(1):73-8. doi: 10.1902/jop.2002.73.1.73.
  56. Sammalkorpi K. Glucose intolerance in acute infections. J Intern Med. 1989 Jan;225(1):15-9.
  57. Yki-Järvinen H, Sammalkorpi K, Koivisto VA, et al. Severity, duration, and mechanisms of insulin resistance during acute infections. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1989 Aug;69(2):317-23. doi: 10.1210/jcem-69-2-317.
  58. Genco RJ, Grossi SG, Ho A, et al. A proposed model linking inflammation to obesity, diabetes, and periodontal infections. J Periodontol. 2005 Nov;76(11 Suppl):2075-84. doi: 10.1902/jop.2005.76.11-S.2075.
  59. Demmer RT, Desvarieux M, Holtfreter B, et al. Periodontal status and A1C change: longitudinal results from the study of health in Pomerania (SHIP). Diabetes Care. 2010 May;33(5):1037-43. doi: 10.2337/dc09-1778. Epub 2010 Feb 25.
  60. Ide R, Hoshuyama T, Wilson D, et al. Periodontal disease and incident diabetes: a seven-year study. J Dent Res. 2011 Jan;90(1):41-6. doi: 10.1177/0022034510381902. Epub 2010 Nov 1.
  61. Borgnakke WS, Ylöstalo PV, Taylor GW, et al. Effect of periodontal disease on diabetes: systematic review of epidemiologic observational evidence. J Periodontol. 2013 Apr;84(4 Suppl):S135-52. doi: 10.1902/jop.2013.1340013.
  62. Kinane DF, Preshaw PM, Loos BG, et al. Host-response: understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms of host-microbial interactions—consensus of the Seventh European Workshop on Periodontology. J Clin Periodontol. 2011 Mar;38 Suppl 11:44-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-051X.2010.01682.x.
  63. Dandona P, Aljada A, Bandyopadhyay A. Inflammation: the link between insulin resistance, obesity and diabetes. Trends Immunol. 2004 Jan;25(1):4-7.
  64. Schmidt MI, Duncan BB, Sharrett AR, et al. Markers of inflammation and prediction of diabetes mellitus in adults (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study): a cohort study. Lancet. 1999 May 15;353(9165):1649-52.
  65. Geisinger ML, Michalowicz BS, Hou W, et al. Systemic Inflammatory Biomarkers and Their Association With Periodontal and Diabetes-Related Factors in the Diabetes and Periodontal Therapy Trial, A Randomized Controlled Trial. J Periodontol. 2016 Aug;87(8):900-13. doi: 10.1902/jop.2016.150727. Epub 2016 Apr 25.
  66. Monnier VM, Bautista O, Kenny D, et al. Skin collagen glycation, glycoxidation, and crosslinking are lower in subjects with long-term intensive versus conventional therapy of type 1 diabetes: relevance of glycated collagen products versus HbA1c as markers of diabetic complications. DCCT Skin Collagen Ancillary Study Group. Diabetes Control and Complications Trial. Diabetes. 1999 Apr;48(4):870-80.
  67. Vashishth D, Gibson GJ, Khoury JI, et al. Influence of nonenzymatic glycation on biomechanical properties of cortical bone. Bone. 2001 Feb;28(2):195-201.
  68. Takagi M, Kasayama S, Yamamoto T, et al. Advanced glycation endproducts stimulate interleukin-6 production by human bone-derived cells. J Bone Miner Res. 1997 Mar;12(3):439-46. doi: 10.1359/jbmr.1997.12.3.439.
  69. Schmidt AM, Yan SD, Wautier JL, et al. Activation of receptor for advanced glycation end products: a mechanism for chronic vascular dysfunction in diabetic vasculopathy and atherosclerosis. Circ Res. 1999 Mar 19;84(5):489-97.
  70. Schmidt AM, Hori O, Cao R, et al. RAGE: a novel cellular receptor for advanced glycation end products. Diabetes. 1996 Jul;45 Suppl 3:S77-80.
  71. Schmidt AM, Weidman E, Lalla E, et al. Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) induce oxidant stress in the gingiva: a potential mechanism underlying accelerated periodontal disease associated with diabetes. J Periodontal Res. 1996 Oct;31(7):508-15.
  72. Takeda M, Ojima M, Yoshioka H, et al. Relationship of serum advanced glycation end products with deterioration of periodontitis in type 2 diabetes patients. J Periodontol. 2006 Jan;77(1):15-20. doi: 10.1902/jop.2006.77.1.15.
  73. Yan SF, Ramasamy R, Schmidt AM. Receptor for AGE (RAGE) and its ligands-cast into leading roles in diabetes and the inflammatory response. J Mol Med (Berl). 2009 Mar;87(3):235-47. doi: 10.1007/s00109-009-0439-2. Epub 2009 Feb 3.
  74. Lalla E, Lamster IB, Feit M, et al. A murine model of accelerated periodontal disease in diabetes. J Periodontal Res. 1998 Oct;33(7):387-99.
  75. Claudino M, Gennaro G, Cestari TM, et al. Spontaneous periodontitis development in diabetic rats involves an unrestricted expression of inflammatory cytokines and tissue destructive factors in the absence of major changes in commensal oral microbiota. Exp Diabetes Res. 2012;2012:356841. doi: 10.1155/2012/356841. Epub 2012 May 7.
  76. Katz J, Bhattacharyya I, Farkhondeh-Kish F, et al. Expression of the receptor of advanced glycation end products in gingival tissues of type 2 diabetes patients with chronic periodontal disease: a study utilizing immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. J Clin Periodontol. 2005 Jan;32(1):40-4. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-051X.2004.00623.x.
  77. Abbass MM, Korany NS, Salama AH, et al. The relationship between receptor for advanced glycation end products expression and the severity of periodontal disease in the gingiva of diabetic and non diabetic periodontitis patients. Arch Oral Biol. 2012 Oct;57(10):1342-54. doi: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2012.06.007. Epub 2012 Jul 12.
  78. Giacco F, Brownlee M. Oxidative stress and diabetic complications. Circ Res. 2010 Oct 29;107(9):1058-70. doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.110.223545.
  79. Merchant AT, Josey MJ. Commentary: Periodontal Treatment and Inflammation in Diabetes: Association or Causation? J Periodontol. 2016 Oct;87(10):1113-6. doi: 10.1902/jop.2016.160433.
  80. Offenbacher S, Beck JD, Moss K, et al. Results from the Periodontitis and Vascular Events (PAVE) Study: a pilot multicentered, randomized, controlled trial to study effects of periodontal therapy in a secondary prevention model of cardiovascular disease. J Periodontol. 2009 Feb;80(2):190-201. doi: 10.1902/jop.2009.080007.
  81. Engebretson SP, Hyman LG, Michalowicz BS, et al. The effect of nonsurgical periodontal therapy on hemoglobin A1c levels in persons with type 2 diabetes and chronic periodontitis: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2013 Dec 18;310(23):2523-32. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.282431.
  82. López NJ, Quintero A, Casanova PA, et al. Effects of periodontal therapy on systemic markers of inflammation in patients with metabolic syndrome: a controlled clinical trial. J Periodontol. 2012 Mar;83(3):267-78. doi: 10.1902/jop.2011.110227. Epub 2011 Jul 12.
  83. Sun QY, Feng M, Zhang MZ, et al. Effects of periodontal treatment on glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Chin J Physiol. 2014 Dec 31;57(6):305-14. doi: 10.4077/CJP.2014.BAC262.
  84. Christgau M, Palitzsch KD, Schmalz G, et al. Healing response to non-surgical periodontal therapy in patients with diabetes mellitus: clinical, microbiological, and immunologic results. J Clin Periodontol. 1998 Feb;25(2):112-24.
  85. Tervonen T, Knuuttila M, Pohjamo L, et al. Immediate response to nonsurgical periodontal treatment in subjects with diabetes mellitus. J Clin Periodontol. 1991 Jan;18(1):65-8.
  86. Tervonen T, Karjalainen K. Periodontal disease related to diabetic status. A pilot study of the response to periodontal therapy in type 1 diabetes. J Clin Periodontol. 1997 Jul;24(7):505-10.
  87. Westfelt E, Rylander H, Blohmé G, et al. The effect of periodontal therapy in diabetics. Results after 5 years. J Clin Periodontol. 1996 Feb;23(2):92-100.
  88. Simpson TC, Weldon JC, Worthington HV, et al. Treatment of periodontal disease for glycaemic control in people with diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Nov 6;(11):CD004714. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD004714.pub3.
  89. D'Aiuto F, Nibali L, Parkar M, et al. Short-term effects of intensive periodontal therapy on serum inflammatory markers and cholesterol. J Dent Res. 2005 Mar;84(3):269-73. doi: 10.1177/154405910508400312.
  90. Felix DH, Luker J, Scully C. Oral medicine: 4. Dry mouth and disorders of salivation. Dent Update. 2012 Dec;39(10):738-43.
  91. US Department of Health and Human Services. Oral Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General—Executive Summary. Rockville, MD. US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, 2000. Accessed March 28, 2017.
  92. Oral health: prevention is key. Lancet. 2009 Jan 3;373(9657):1. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61933-9.
  93. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Diabetes. Data & Statistics. PowerPoint Slides on Diabetes. Accessed March 28, 2107.
  94. American Academy of Periodontology. CDC: Half of American Adults Have Periodontal Disease. 2012 Sept. Accessed March 28, 2107.

Additional Resources

  • No Additional Resources Available