Learning Objectives

Upon completion of this course, the dental professional should be able to:

  • Define causality and causal inference.
  • Discuss the importance of making causally-related statements to patients.
  • Differentiate between association, relationship, and causation.
  • Discuss the principles of causation and how they are used to determine causality.
  • Discuss the differences between the types of studies that are used to determine causality.
  • Assess evidence for causation using applied epidemiological methods.
  • Discuss how to use the principles of causation in clinical practice to answer patient concerns regarding media announcements that pertain to oral health practitioners.