Dyspnea is ranked #17 among the 30 most common ADRs associated with the top 200 drugs dispensed by U.S. community pharmacies.9 It is described as shortness of breath, breathlessness, inability to take a deep breath, suffocating, cannot get enough air, or pain on breathing.6,8,28 Dyspnea is to be distinguished from impairment of expiratory airflow associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.28 Dyspnea may be caused by opioids, β1-adrenergic receptor agonist, and intolerance to ASA, NSAIDs, and adenosine.
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