Cytotoxic Reactions

Depending on the severity of the toxic insult cytotoxicity may manifest as apoptosis - programmed cell death; or necrosis - uncontrolled cell death.6 Apoptosis is genetically directed self-destruction of DNA-damaged cells and, depending on the regenerating capacity of the tissue, may lead to fibrosis.6 If the toxic insult is severe, programmed cell death cannot be accomplished and the cells undergo necrosis.6 Necrosis is characterized by autolysis of damaged cells, inflammation, and damage to nearby healthy tissues.