Teratogenesis-related ADRs

Only a small number of drugs in clinical use have been positively implicated in teratogenesis. Of note for oral healthcare providers are the tetracyclines. They induce enamel hypoplasia, discoloration of teeth, and diminished growth of long bones.20,21 Furthermore, they produce higher rates of neuronal-tube defect, cleft palate, and multiple congenital abnormalities such as neuronal-tube defect with cardiovascular malformation.22

Recent evidence also suggests that acetaminophen (APAP) can act as a hormone disrupter such that it interferes with reproductive and thyroid hormone functions essential for normal brain development.23 Increased risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like behavioral problems or hyperkinetic disorders (HKDs) has been reported among children born to women with a history of frequent APAP use during pregnancy.23