GI complications of diabetes mellitus (DM) and their symptoms are often caused by abnormal GI motility, which is a consequence of diabetic autonomic neuropathy caused primarily by impaired vagal control.28 About one in ten patients with DM report symptoms consistent with gastroparesis characterized by nausea, vomiting, bloating, postprandial fullness (satiety), and upper abdominal pain.28 Delayed gastric emptying contributes to poor blood glucose control.28
Dietary modifications such as increasing liquid intake for patients with delayed solid emptying and eating smaller meals minimize postprandial fullness.28 Fiber supplements, foods that are high in fat and alcohol impair gastric emptying and their intake should be reduced.28 The use of tobacco products should be discontinued. Metoclopramide, a prokinetic agent that stimulates motility of the upper GI tract is useful to minimize the symptoms of postprandial fullness and nausea.2,3,28
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