This continuing dental education course presents the physiological basis of adrenergic pharmacology. It discusses the safe and effective use of epinephrine in the treatment of anaphylaxis and as a vasoconstrictor administered in conjunction with local anesthetic agents. The objective of this course is to provide evidence-based information essential for determining the therapeutic dose of epinephrine to minimize toxicity when treating anaphylaxis or when epinephrine is used as a vasoconstrictor in conjunction with local anesthesia.