Periodontal diseases affecting teeth can similarly affect implants. A history of periodontitis is a risk factor for peri-implantitis.3,68,69 The primary cause of inflammation around peri-implant tissues is the presence of anaerobic bacteria and their byproducts.70 Findings suggest that bacteria associated with periodontal disease and peri-implant diseases are similar and the principal pathogens in peri-implant disease are P gingivalis and A actinomycetemcomitans.71 Colonization of dental implants with these bacterial species has been shown to occur within the first 28 days after exposure to the oral environment72 and bacteria can be transferred from distant reservoirs at tooth sites within a patient’s mouth.73 Given the high prevalence of periodontal disease and the rate of tooth loss due to periodontal disease in adult patients, treatment of active periodontal disease and maintenance therapy of both natural dentition and/or dental implants is critical to overall implant success.3,68
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